Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Patient Receiving or Not Receiving Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

ACE Inhibitor Group (n = 4,644)Non–ACE Inhibitor Group
Total (n = 366)Valsartan (n = 185)Placebo (n = 181)
Age (yrs)62.3 ± 11.0*67.2 ± 10.466.6 ± 10.367.7 ± 10.4
Age ≥65 yrs (%)45.6*63.460.066.9
Females (%)19.3*28.724.333.1
Whites (%)90.0*95.195.195.0
NYHA class III–IV (%)37.4*47.041.153.0
Ischemic etiology (%)56.4*67.569.265.7
Duration HF (months)
Median36.036.036.036.0
Mean ± SD50.8 ± 50.6*56.3 ± 58.057.8 ± 61.954.8 ± 53.9
Beta-blockers (%)34.738.339.537.0
SBP (mm Hg)124 ± 19*126 ± 18128 ± 19125 ± 18
DBP (mm Hg)76 ± 1176 ± 1077 ± 975 ± 11
HR (beats/min)73 ± 1373 ± 1273 ± 1273 ± 13
S3 (%)25.727.621.633.7
LVEF (%)26.6 ± 7.2*28.2 ± 6.727.6 ± 6.728.7 ± 6.6
LVIDD/BSA (cm/m2)3.7 ± 0.53.6 ± 0.53.6 ± 0.53.7 ± 0.6
MLHFQ score32.2 ± 22.935.2 ± 23.835.0 ± 21.935.3 ± 25.8
(n = 2,881)(n = 220)(n = 115)(n = 105)
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)113.43 ± 27.17115.51 ± 30.35113.20 ± 28.24117.86 ± 32.28
(n = 4,637)(n = 366)(n = 185)(n = 181)
Norepinephrine (pg/ml)462 ± 325491 ± 295480 ± 296502 ± 293
(n = 3,989)(n = 312)(n = 159)(n = 153)
BNP (pg/ml)179 ± 231199 ± 219205 ± 206192 ± 232
(n = 3,993)(n = 312)(n = 159)(n = 153)
Aldosterone (pg/ml)132 ± 120*190 ± 197163 ± 173218 ± 216
(n = 3,929)(n = 311)(n = 159)(n = 152)
Plasma renin activity (ng/ml per h)15.1 ± 24.3*4.2 ± 7.34.0 ± 6.94.3 ± 7.7
(n = 3,978)(n = 313)(n = 159)(n = 154)

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; DBP = sitting diastolic blood pressure; HF = heart failure; HR = heart rate; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVIDD/BSA = left ventricular internal diastolic diameter/body surface area; MLHFQ = Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire; NYHA = New York Heart Association; SBP = sitting systolic blood pressure; S3 = third heart sound.

  • * Statistically significant at p < 0.05 when comparing ACE inhibitor group versus non–ACE inhibitor group.

  • Statistically significant at p < 0.05 when comparing valsartan versus placebo in non–ACE inhibitor group. Data are presented as the mean value ± SD or percentage of patients.