Table 1

ACC Core Cardiology Training Symposium (COCATS) Prevention Core Components of Cardiovascular Medicine Training Programs

Level 1 includes training that should be part of the knowledge base of all clinical cardiologists and includes exposure to the following general and specific areas.
Training in these areas should ideally be undertaken in a one-month (or longer) rotation in preventive cardiovascular medicine. An acceptable alternative would be a one-month (or longer) rotation in a comprehensive cardiovascular rehabilitation program that incorporates a broad range of preventive approaches besides the traditional rehabilitation effort focused mostly on physical exercise. While less ideal than a block-time rotation, training in these areas could be integrated into consultative, inpatient and outpatient rotations and didactic components of core cardiovascular medicine programs. If the latter approach is taken, the time allotted should be equivalent to at least 1 month of full-time training. Training Program Directors may also consider supplementing clinical experiences with short courses devoted exclusively to preventive cardiology or risk factors, such as the ACC Heart House Course in Preventive Cardiology.
General content areas:
  • 1. Vascular biology of the heart and blood vessels

  • 2. Clinical epidemiology and biostatistics

  • 3. Principles of clinical trials and outcomes research

  • 4. Principles of clinical pharmacology

Exposure to the following specific content areas is also essential:
  • 1. Diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary hypertension

  • 2. Diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary dyslipidemias

  • 3. Diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis and hypercoagulable states

  • 4. Management of smoking cessation and nicotine addiction

  • 5. Cardiac rehabilitation

  • 6. Exercise physiology

  • 7. Nutrition and its effects on the cardiovascular system

  • 8. Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular diseases

  • 8. Diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular disease, including stroke and cerebral ischemia

Adapted with permission from Beller GA, et al. ACC revised recommendations for training in adult cardiovascular medicine core cardiology training II (COCATS II) (Revision of the 1995 COCATS training statement). American College of Cardiology Web site. 2002. Available at