Table 1

Characteristics of Patients With Normal, Pre-Hypertensive, and Hypertensive Average Blood Pressure Levels During the Study

CharacteristicNormal (n = 76)Pre-Hypertensive (n = 157)Hypertensive (n = 41)p Value
Age, yrs53.0 ± 8.457.5 ± 9.461.9 ± 10.5<0.001
Male65 (85.5%)123 (78.3%)27 (65.8%)0.047
Body mass index, kg/m229.4 ± 4.430.2 ± 4.831.3 ± 6.30.15
Current smoker19 (25.0%) 37 (23.5%) 9 (21.9%)0.90
History of hypertension33 (43.4%)110 (70.0%)32 (78.0%)<0.001
History of diabetes10 (13.1%) 31 (19.7%) 6 (14.6%)0.41
Lipid profile
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl183.2 ± 27.6179.9 ± 34.7173.7 ± 41.10.35
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl100.0 ± 22.298.2 ± 27.894.6 ± 37.40.64
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl41.1 ± 11.141.2 ± 11.744.4 ± 14.70.28
 Triglycerides, mg/dl194.1 ± 97.3185.9 ± 118.1170.5 ± 95.10.13
 LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio2.6 ± 0.82.6 ± 1.12.2 ± 0.80.07
Study medications0.02
 Amlodipine26 (34.2%) 56 (35.6%) 9 (21.9%)
 Enalapril33 (43.4%) 42 (26.7%)13 (31.7%)
 Placebo17 (22.3%) 59 (38.0%)19 (46.3%)
Concomitant medications
 Aspirin75 (98.6%)150 (95.5%)38 (92.6%)0.26
 Beta-blocker57 (75.0%)134 (85.3%)34 (82.9%)0.15
 Statin66 (86.8%)140 (89.1%)34 (82.9%)0.54

 HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein.

  • p values for continuous variables were obtained with analysis of variance except for triglycerides and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio for which the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The p values for categorical variables were obtained with the chi-square test;

  • average values during the study period.