Table 3

Multivariable Predictors of PAD

OR (95% CI) p Value
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4§
PAD/total (n/N)104/26898/24692/22792/234
Demographics
 Race/ethnicity
  CaucasianReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
  African American3.1 (1.5–6.4)2.4 (0.9–6.1)1.9 (0.7–5.1)1.9 (0.7–4.7)
<0.010.060.210.18
  Hispanic0.6 (0.2–1.5)0.4 (0.1–1.4)0.5 (0.1–1.8)0.6 (0.2–2.0)
0.270.160.280.40
  Asian American0.6 (0.2–1.9)1.4 (0.3–5.6)1.2 (0.2–6.1)1.3 (0.2–6.5)
0.360.640.870.79
 College education0.7 (0.4–1.5)0.6 (0.3–1.3)0.6 (0.3–1.1)
0.400.230.11
 Technical, administrative, or professional occupation0.6 (0.3–1.4)0.7 (0.3–1.7)
0.230.45
Medical history
 Diabetes5.9 (1.9–18.5)3.7 (1.2–12.0)3.6 (1.3–10.1)
<0.010.30.02
 Hypertension2.1 (1.0–4.3)2.1 (0.9–4.3)1.8 (0.9–3.8)
0.040.060.10
 Hyperlipidemia1.6 (0.7–3.3)1.4 (0.6–3.2)
0.230.37
 Cardiovascular disease4.9 (2.0–11.9)4.2 (1.6–11.0)5.4 (2.2–12.9)
<0.01<0.01<0.01
 Pack-yrs tobacco (per 10 yrs)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.1 (1.0–1.3)
<0.010.020.04
 Waist/hip ratio0.6 (0.0–24.6)1.2 (0.0–62.7)
0.800.93
Novel cardiovascular risk factors
 Log-lipoprotein (a)1.4 (1.0–2.0)1.4 (1.0–2.0)
0.060.06
 Log-C-reactive protein0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.8 (0.5–1.1)
0.250.17
 Fibrinogen1.5 (1.0–2.4)1.7 (1.1–2.5)
0.04<0.01
 von Willebrand factor0.97 (0.7–1.4)
0.86
 Log-D-dimer1.2 (0.8–1.7)
0.35
Model diagnostics
 Area under ROC curve, c-statistic0.590.79, <0.0010.81, 0.12#0.80, 0.34#
 Hosmer-Lemeshow p value1.000.620.350.36

CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; PAD = peripheral arterial disease; ROC = receiver-operator characteristic.

  • Age- and gender-matched.

  • Adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  • Adjusted for Model 2 variables and novel covariates selected if associated with PAD and African-American race (p ≤ 0.25) in univariate analyses (Tables 1 and 2).

  • § Covariates retained if p value for PAD was ≤0.25 in Model 3.

  • Per standard deviation higher.

  • Compared with Model 1.

  • # Compared with Model 2.