Table 1

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

StudyRisk FactorPatientsEffects on EPC NumberEffect on Function
Vasa et al. (9)LDLCAD↓CD34+/KDR+cells, NE CFU↓Migration
HypertensionNE↓Migration
Smoking↓Circulating CD34+/KDR+cells, ↓in cultureNE on migration
Hill et al. (10)Total cholesterol, LDLHealthy↓CFUND
Chen et al. (27)Total cholesterolCAD↓In culture↓Proliferation, migration, adhesion, in vitro vasculogenic capacity
Pellegatta et al. (31)HDL, triglyceridesHealthy↓CFUND
Loomans et al. (36)DiabetesType 1 diabetes melitus↓In culture↓In vitro vasculogenic capacity
Tepper et al. (37)DiabetesType 2 diabetes melitus↓In culture↓In vitro vasculogenic capacity
Pistrosch et al. (38)DiabetesType 2 diabetes melitusNE↓Adhesion
Kondo et al. (42)SmokingHealthy↓Circulating CD45low/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+cellsND
Chen et al. (44)HomocysteineHealthy↓In culture↓Proliferation, migration, adhesion, in vitro vasculogenic capacity
Thum et al. (46)ADMACAD↓Circulating CD34+/CD133+cells, ↓CFU↓Differentiation, in vitro vasculogenic capacity, NO synthase activity

ADMA = asymmetric dimethylarginine; CAD = coronary artery disease; CFU = colony-forming units of EPCs; EPC = endothelial progenitor cell; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; KDR = kinase insert domain receptor; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; ND = no data; NE = no effect; NO = nitric oxide.