Table 1

Different Approaches to Visualize Atherosclerosis by Radionuclide Imaging

Underlying Plaque BiologyRadionuclide TracerExperimental SettingReference
Inflammation99mTc-LDLHuman carotid/ileofemoral arteryLees at al. 1988 (48)
Lipoprotein accumulation123I-LDLHuman carotid arteryVirgolini et al. 1991 (53)
125I-LDLRabbit aortaVirgolini et al. 1991 (54)
99mTc-ox-LDLHuman carotid arteryIuliano et al. 1996 (57)
123I-MDA2 (Ab to ox-LDL epitope)Rabbit arteriesTsimikas et al. 1999 (49)
125I-IK17 (Ab to ox-LDL epitope)Mouse aortaShaw et al. 2001 (50)
123I-SP4 (apoliprotein B fragment)Rabbit aortaHardoff et al. 1993 (51)
125I-SP4Rabbit aortaLu et al. 1996 (52)
Chemotaxis125I-MCP-1 (chemotactic molecule)Rabbit aortaOhtsuki et al. 2001 (9)
Angiogenesis125I-c(RGD(I)yV) (peptide binding αvβ3)Murine ischemic hindlimbs/HUVECsLee at al. 2005 (33)
99mTc-(NC100692) (peptide binding αvβ3)Murine ischemic hindlimbsHua et al. 2005 (47)
Monocyte recruitment/activity111In-monocytesHuman arteriesVirgolini et al. 1990 (17)
18F-FDG (metabolic activity)Rabbit iliac arteryLederman et al. 2001 (18)
18F-FDGHuman carotid arteryRudd et al. 2002 (20)
18F-FDGHuman arteriesBen Haim et al. 2004 (19)
18F-FDG in comparison with 18F-FCHMouse aortaeMatter et al. 2007 (24)
VHSPNKK-modified magnetofluorescent nanoparticle (VNP) (VCAM-1 expression)Mouse carotid arteryKelly et al. 2005 (31)
Apoptosis99mTc-annexin V (phosphatidylserine expression)Rabbit aortaKolodgie et al. 2003 (72)
99mTc-annexin VHuman carotid arteryKietselaer et al. 2004 (70)
99mTc-annexin VSwine coronary arteryJohnson et al. 2005 (71)
99mTc-annexin VMouse aortaIsobe et al. 2006 (75)
Proteolysis123I-HO-CGS27023 A (MMP inhibitor)Mouse carotid arterySchäfers et al. 2004 (10)
GHPGGPQKC-NH2 (cathepsin K substrate)—NIRF probeMouse aortae and human carotid arteriesJaffer et al. 2007 (66)
Thrombogenicity and cell recruitment111In-plateletsHuman carotid arteryMinar et al. 1989 (76)
111In-plateletsHuman carotid arteryMoriwaki et al. 1995 (77)
125I-GPVI/123I-GPVI (platelet collagen receptor)Mouse carotid arteryGawaz et al. 2005 (11)
99mTc-DMP-444 (GPIIb-IIIa inhibitor)Canine coronary arteryMitchel et al. 2000 (78)
99mTc-T2G1s Fab (fibrinogen binding)Canine femoral/carotid arteryCerqueira et al. 1992 (79)
125I-L19 (fibronectin binding)Mouse aortaMatter et al. 2004 (82)

FCH = fluorocholine; FDG = fluorodeoxyglucose; GP = glycoprotein; HUVEC = human umbilical vein endothelial cell; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCP = monocyte chemoattractant protein; MDA2 = malondialdehyde epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein; MMP = matrix metalloproteinase; NIRF = near-infrared fluorescent; ox-LDL = oxidized low-density lipoprotein; RGD = protein sequence “arginine-glycine-aspartic acid”; VCAM = vascular cell adhesion molecule.