Table 1

Demographic and Risk Factors by ABI Group

Risk FactorABI Groupp Value
Normal (n = 4,420)High (n = 296)
Age, yrs (mean, SD)70.1 (9.7)71.1 (9.9)0.09
Male, n (%)2,024 (45.8)200 (67.6)<0.001
Race/ethnicity, n (%)0.24
 Non-Hispanic white3,672 (83.1)251 (84.8)
 Black403 (9.1)16 (5.4)
 Hispanic184 (4.2)15 (5.1)
 Native American33 (0.7)4 (1.3)
 Asian/Pacific Islander80 (1.8)7 (2.4)
 Other48 (1.1)3 (1.0)
Smoking status, n (%)<0.001
 Current658 (14.9)19 (6.4)
 Former1,831 (41.4)127 (42.9)
 Never1,931 (43.7)150 (50.7)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)1,538 (34.8)131 (44.3)0.001
Dyslipidemia, n (%)2,842 (64.3)172 (58.1)0.03
Hypertension, n (%)3,562 (80.6)241 (81.4)0.73
Other CVD, n (%)1,544 (34.9)124 (41.9)0.02
BMI (kg/mm2), mean (SD)28.9 (6.2)29.6 (7.0)0.08
Waist circumference, mean (SD)38.1 (6.0)39.6 (5.9)<0.001
SBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)137.7 (19.5)133.5 (18.3)<0.001
DBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)77.8 (10.4)76.0 (10.5)<0.001
Left dorsalis pedis blood SBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)150.0 (28.9)173.8 (46.7)<0.001
Right dorsalis pedis blood SBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)150.4 (29.2)175.9 (45.6)<0.001
Left posterior tibial blood SBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)155.6 (27.3)185.2 (41.2)<0.001
Right posterior tibial SBP (mm Hg), mean (SD)156.3 (27.5)191.8 (43.1)<0.001

ABI = ankle brachial index; BMI = body mass index; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; SBP = systolic blood pressure.

  • The p values are biased as these measures are used in the ABI group definition.