Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Study Cohort

TZD (n = 818)No Insulin-Sensitizing Medication (n = 4,700)
Age, yrs (SD)67.6 (9.4)70.3 (9.3)
Male (%)774 (95)4,397 (94)
Race (%)
 White625 (76)3,491 (74)
 Black67 (8)596 (13)
 Other/unknown126 (15)613 (13)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (SD)130.9 (21.3)131 (21.6)
Body mass index, kg/m2(SD)34.3 (7.6)31.0 (6.5)
LVEF (%)
 Normal or mildly reduced (LVEF ≥40%)430 (52)2,004 (43)
 Moderate or severely reduced (LVEF <40%)261 (32)1,844 (39)
 Unknown127 (16)852 (18)
Diabetes with complications (%)537 (66)2,647 (56)
Dementia (%)10 (1.2)133 (2.8)
Atrial fibrillation (%)199 (24)1,412 (30)
Past myocardial infarction (%)314 (38)1,627 (35)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (%)178 (22)1,332 (28.3)
Cancer (%)120 (14.7)871 (18.5)
GFR, ml/min/m2(SD)
 ≥60291 (36)1,686 (36)
 30 to <60436 (53)2,514 (53)
 <3091 (11)500 (11)
Sodium (mEq/l)138.7 (3.4)138.9 (3.4)
Hemoglobin, mg/dl (SD)13.1 (1.8)13.3 (1.8)
Hemoglobin A1c, % (SD)8.0 (1.7)7.5 (1.6)
Medication use (%)
 Insulin437 (53)2,483 (53)
 Sulfonylurea405 (50)2,824 (60)
 Biguanide208 (25)0
 ACE or ARB676 (83)3,841 (82)
 Statin558 (68)2,516 (54)
 Beta-blocker496 (61)2,847 (61)
Prior HF hospitalization within 2 yrs (%)135 (17)930 (20)
Medical school affiliation (%)467 (57)2,985 (64)

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; TZD = thiazolidinedione.

  • p ≤ 0.01

  • p ≤ 0.05.