Table 5

Multivariate Associations of Baseline Characteristics and Nonfatal Perioperative Complications With Long-Term All-Cause and Cardiac Mortality

Risk FactorLong-Term All-Cause MortalityLong-Term Cardiac Death
HR Univariate (95% CI)HR Multivariate (95% CI)HR Univariate (95% CI)HR Multivariate (95% CI)
Baseline risk factors
 Operation group
  LLR (reference)1.01.01.01.0
  r-AAA1.29 (1.03–1.62)NS1.11 (0.75–1.64)NS
  AAA0.97 (0.86–1.09)NS0.75 (0.61–0.93)NS
  CEA0.66 (0.57–0.78)NS0.50 (0.38–0.67)NS
 Gender1.15 (1.01–1.30)NS1.13 (0.91–1.41)NS
 Age >70 yrs2.18 (1.96–2.43)2.11 (1.88–2.36)2.00 (1.65–2.41)2.02 (1.66–2.47)
 Hypertension1.15 (1.03–1.28)NS1.18 (0.98–1.42)NS
 COPD1.60 (1.41–1.81)1.49 (1.29–1.71)1.29 (1.02–1.63)NS
 Diabetes mellitus1.32 (1.14–1.52)NS1.87 (1.50–2.34)1.47 (1.16–1.87)
 Hypercholesterolemia1.06 (0.93–1.22)NS1.38 (1.10–1.72)NS
 Current smoker1.30 (1.16–1.46)1.20 (1.06–1.36)1.44 (1.18–1.76)NS
 MI1.43 (1.28–1.62)NS2.59 (2.15–3.13)1.59 (1.26–2.01)
 Coronary revascularization1.08 (0.96–1.22)NS2.17 (1.80–2.62)1.61 (1.30–1.99)
 Heart failure1.74 (1.41–2.14)NS2.94 (2.19–3.94)1.45 (1.04–2.01)
 Angina1.26 (1.10–1.45)NS2.22 (1.81–2.73)1.21 (1.01–1.59)
 Renal dysfunction2.23 (1.83–2.47)1.72 (1.47–2.02)2.31 (1.80–2.96)1.60 (1.22–2.09)
Post-operative complications
 Nonfatal MI1.45 (1.19–1.76)NS4.07 (2.17–7.63)2.22 (1.15–4.28)
 Heart failure2.20 (1.47–3.29)NS3.36 (1.89–5.96)1.86 (1.01–3.43)
 Arrhythmia2.04 (1.41–2.98)1.65 (1.12–2.43)2.41 (1.33–4.40)1.86 (1.00–3.52)
 Infection1.75 (1.52–2.02)1.51 (1.31–1.76)1.51 (1.17–1.96)NS
 Stroke2.05 (1.55–2.72)1.98 (1.47–2.67)1.57 (0.90–2.73)NS
 Amputation2.03 (1.58–2.61)1.74 (1.33–2.29)1.50 (0.84–2.68)NS
 Hemorrhage1.24 (0.99–1.57)NS0.95 (0.60–1.50)NS
 Thrombectomy1.14 (0.87–1.48)NS1.45 (0.96–2.19)NS
 Reoperation1.30 (0.98–1.74)NS1.49 (0.93–2.39)NS
 Acute renal failure1.81 (1.54–2.12)1.44 (1.21–1.73)1.73 (1.31–2.29)1.39 (1.01–1.92)
 Hemodialysis§2.95 (1.98–4.38)1.67 (1.06–2.63)3.13 (1.61–6.06)NS

HR = hazard ratio; other abbreviations as in Table 2.

  • Death because of MI, heart failure, and arrhythmia.

  • Baseline serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl.

  • Peak post-operative serum creatinine >+0.5 mg/dl (>44 μmol/l) within 3 days after surgery compared with pre-operative serum creatinine.

  • § Excluding patients who were on pre-operative dialysis.