Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the SANDS Participants

Standard Group (n = 204)Aggressive Group (n = 223)p Value
Ezetimibe (n = 69)No Ezetimibe (n = 154)
Age, yrs57 (56–58)55 (53–57)57 (55–58)0.20
Women138 (68)41 (59)106 (69)0.36
Diabetes therapy
 Lifestyle23 (12)3 (4)13 (9)
 Oral hypoglycemic117 (64)40 (59)100 (66)0.20
 Insulin13 (7)10 (15)11 (7)
 Insulin plus oral31 (17)15 (22)27 (18)
Lipid medications
 Statins75 (37)30 (44)44 (29)0.07
 Fibrates10 (5)5 (7)6 (4)0.54
 Niacin2 (1)000.66
 Fish oil2 (1)02 (1)1.00
eGFR, n (S: 199, E+: 68; E−: 150)87.7 (84–91)93.4 (88–99)89.5 (86–93)0.25
Smoker37 (18)14 (20)32 (21)0.81
Aspirin (≥80 mg)154 (68)49 (71)111 (72)0.78

Values are n (%) or mean (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise indicated. Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and analysis of variance F test was used for continuous variables. The sample size for the baseline characteristics was determined by the available data on 36-month IMT mean measurement. The standard group excluded 25 patients who were on ezetimibe.

CI = confidence interval; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; E+ = ezetimibe subgroup; E− = no-ezetimibe subgroup; IMT = intima-media thickness; S = standard group; SANDS = Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study.

  • Before randomization.