Table 4

Multivariable Multistate Modeling for Predictors of Heart Failure or Mortality

All Patients (n = 7,733), %Development of HF (n = 5,871) HR (95% CI)Mortality HR (95% CI)
In Those Who Developed HF (n = 2,316)In Those Who Did Not Develop HF (n = 771)
Age, per yr1.02 (1.02–1.02)1.07 (1.06–1.08)1.06 (1.05–1.07)
Female40.01.07 (1.02–1.13)1.04 (0.96–1.13)0.83 (0.72–0.96)
Diabetes19.11.21 (1.14–1.30)1.5 (1.37–1.65)1.17 (0.98–1.40)
Cardiac arrhythmia28.01.25 (1.18–1.32)1.24 (1.14–1.35)1.82 (1.57–2.11)
Peripheral vascular disease4.11.36 (1.20–1.54)1.29 (1.08–1.53)1.32 (0.91–1.90)
Cerebrovascular disease5.81.13 (1.02–1.27)1.50 (1.30–1.74)1.66 (1.31–2.11)
Acute renal failure2.91.32 (1.12–1.55)2.21 (1.83–2.67)2.14 (1.56–2.94)
Chronic renal failure3.11.51 (1.30–1.75)1.55 (1.29–1.85)1.01 (0.65–1.57)
COPD14.31.15 (1.07–1.24)1.21 (1.09–1.35)1.00 (0.81–1.24)
Cancer2.71.24 (1.06–1.46)2.63 (2.20–3.15)1.85 (1.34–2.54)
PCI without stent4.81.02 (0.91–1.16)0.54 (0.42–0.70)0.49 (0.29–0.83)
PCI with stent7.01.08 (0.98–1.19)0.59 (0.47–0.73)0.75 (0.46–1.24)
CABG2.41.10 (0.94–1.30)0.45 (0.32–0.62)0.27 (0.11–0.65)
ACE inhibitors29.91.26 (1.19–1.34)0.82 (0.75–0.90)0.22 (0.16–0.30)
Beta-blockers48.00.83 (0.79–0.89)0.55 (0.50–0.61)0.14 (0.11–0.18)
Statins10.30.91 (0.83–0.99)0.58 (0.48–0.72)0.44 (0.26–0.76)
Year (1997 to 2000, reference 1994 to 1996)51.41.11 (1.06–1.18)1.06 (0.98–1.16)1.19 (1.03–1.38)

CI = confidence interval; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HR = hazard ratio; other abbreviations as in Table 2.