Table 4

Cardiac RiskStratification for Noncardiac Surgical Procedures

Risk StratificationProcedure Examples
Vascular (reported cardiac risk often more than 5%)
  • Aortic and other major vascular surgery

  • Peripheral vascular surgery

Intermediate (reported cardiac risk generally 1% to 5%)
  • Intraperitoneal and intrathoracic surgery

  • Carotid endarterectomy

  • Head and neck surgery

  • Orthopedic surgery

  • Prostate surgery

Low(reported cardiac risk generally less than 1%)
  • Endoscopic procedures

  • Superficial procedure

  • Cataract surgery

  • Breast surgery

  • Ambulatory surgery

  • Combined incidence of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction.

  • These procedures do not generally require further preoperative cardiac testing.