Table 2

Comparisons of Patients With Acute Heart Failure Based on the 60-Day Survival

CharacteristicAlive at Day 60 (n = 606)Deceased by Day 60 (n = 84)p Value
Age, yrs (mean ± SD)74.4 ± 11.778.5 ± 10.60.002
Male gender51.2%52.4%0.833
Black race2.5%0%0.237
Medical history
 Hypertension62.0%51.2%0.056
 Coronary artery disease50.7%65.5%0.011
 Prior acute myocardial infarction33.3%42.2%0.112
 Prior heart failure51.7%54.8%0.593
 Prior obstructive airways disease29.3%26.2%0.561
 Smoking (past or present)51.9%52.4%0.985
Symptoms/signs
 Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea33.2%19.0%0.009
 Orthopnea51.6%48.4%0.635
 Lower extremity edema46.5%45.2%0.823
 Chest pain33.5%32.5%0.861
 Cough32.8%27.4%0.361
 Fever4.1%10.7%0.009
 Increased sputum18.3%16.7%0.713
 NYHA functional class 444.2%50.0%0.319
Physical examination
 Pulse rate (mean ± SD)92.8 ± 25.895.5 ± 26.00.381
 Jugular venous distension48.8%56.0%0.222
 S3gallop6.9%8.3%0.639
 Lower extremity edema56.3%52.4%0.501
 Rales68.7%67.9%0.882
 Wheezing16.9%10.7%0.151
Electrocardiographic findings
 Sinus rhythm59.6%64.3%0.408
 Atrial fib/flutter34.5%32.1%0.671
 Left ventricular hypertrophy10.7%8.3%0.499
 Left bundle branch block15.0%25.0%0.02
Chest X-ray findings
 Interstitial edema37.6%29.8%0.161
 Infiltrate11.7%16.7%0.196
 Pleural effusion26.6%22.6%0.440
 Cephalization of vessels29.4%35.7%0.235
 Cardiomegaly37.0%39.3%0.680
Laboratory findings
 Creatinine, mg/dl (median, interquartile range)1.12 (0.87–1.50)1.41 (1.02–2.10)<0.001
 GFR, ml/min/1.73m2(median, interquartile range)60.7 (42.90–79.22)43.9 (30.92–64.03)<0.001
 Troponin T ≥0.01 ng/ml47.5%77.3%<0.001
 Hemoglobin, g/dl (mean ± SD)12.7 ± 2.0612.0 ± 1.970.003
 NT-proBNP, pg/ml (median, interquartile range)4,077 (1,740–9,989)9,448 (3,805–22,179)<0.001

GFR = glomerular filtration rate; NT-proBNP = amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA = New York Heart Association.