Table 4

A Summary of HF Intervention Studies Describing Changes in Depression Severity

Authorsn (Women)Mean Age, yrs (SD)InterventionDurationDepression MeasureOutcomes
Corvera-Tindel et al. (64)39 (NA)63.2 (10.1)Home walking exercise program12 weeksMultiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL)
  • MAACL compliant vs. non-compliant completers: d = −0.21

  • MAACL compliant completers vs. drop-outs: d = 0.14

Kostis et al. (65)20 (6)65.7 (6.1)Combined exercise, dietary control, & group CBT vs. digoxin vs. placebo12 weeksBeck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)
  • Mean depression change (combined BDI & HDRS)

  • Nonpharmacologic tx: d = −0.64

  • Digoxin tx: d = 0.35

  • Placebo: d = 0.35

Lader et al. (66)589 (156)64.6 (11.7)Digoxin vs. placebo4 and 12 monthsCenter for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D)
  • Depression score change nonsignificant, same in both groups: 8 to 7

  • Digoxin 6 MWT: d = 0.16

  • Placebo 6 MWT: d = 0.14

Lesperance et al. (56)28 (8)59.6 (NA)Nefazodone12 weeksBDI or PRIME-MD & SCID & HDRS
  • HDRS change: d = −2.20

  • BDI change: d = −1.54

Luskin et al. (67)33 (20)66 (9)Group stress management training vs. control10 weeksGeriatric Depression Scale (GDS)
  • Tx GDS change: d = −0.16

  • Control GDS change: d = 0.03

  • Tx 6 MWT change: d = 0.12

  • Control 6 MWT change: d = −0.02

Radzewitz et al. (68)88 (21)65.8 (8.2)Muscle strength and bicycle ergometer training; 6-min walk4 weeksHospital Anxiety & Depression Scale–Depression (HADS)
  • HADS-D change: d = −0.13

  • 6 MWT change: d = 0.99

CBT = cognitive behavior therapy; 6 MWT = 6 minute walk test; Tx = treatment group; other abbreviations as in Table 3.