Table 4

Cardiac RiskStratification for Noncardiac Surgical Procedures

Risk StratificationProcedure Examples
Vascular (reported cardiac risk often more than 5%)Aortic and other major vascular surgery
Peripheral vascular surgery
Intermediate (reported cardiac risk generally 1% to 5%)Intraperitoneal and intrathoracic surgery
Carotid endarterectomy
Head and neck surgery
Orthopedic surgery
Prostate surgery
Low(reported cardiac risk generally less than 1%)Endoscopic procedures
Superficial procedure
Cataract surgery
Breast surgery
Ambulatory surgery
  • Combined incidence of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction.

  • These procedures do not generally require further preoperative cardiac testing.