Table 1

Baseline Patient Characteristics

MissingOverall (n = 1,077)Men (n = 495)Women (n = 582)p Value
Age (yrs)76.8 (12.7)73.3 (12.8)79.8 (11.8)<0.001
EF (%)28146.3 (17.5)41.6 (15.9)50.6 (17.8)<0.001
Inpatient at HF diagnosis56.055.656.30.82
Year of HF diagnosis
 1987–199120.821.020.60.70
 1992–199626.126.325.9
 1997–200126.527.725.4
 2002–200626.625.128.0
Risk factors and comorbidities
 Hypertension74.665.982.0<0.001
 Current smoker1214.219.110.1<0.001
 Hyperlipidemia44.349.140.20.003
 Diabetes mellitus221.123.718.90.06
 Body mass index (kg/m2)1729.4 (10.1)30.0 (10.2)28.8 (10.0)<0.001
 Prior MI420.124.916.0<0.001
 COPD23.526.920.60.02
 Cerebrovascular disease124.624.025.10.68
 Peripheral vascular disease22.026.518.20.001
 Charlson index ≥3543.046.140.30.06
Laboratory data
 Anemia1543.945.042.90.50
 Creatinine clearance (ml/min)1058.2 (21.6)60.9 (22.8)56.0 (20.2)<0.001

All values are % or mean (SD).

COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EF = ejection fraction; HF = heart failure; MI = myocardial infarction.