Table 1

Clinical Characteristics

Quintile 1 HbA1C ≤6.4% (n = 1,264)Quintile 2 6.4% < HbA1C ≤7.1% (n = 1,152)Quintile 3 7.1% < HbA1C ≤7.8% (n = 1,092)Quintile 4 7.8% < HbA1C ≤9.0% (n = 1,198)Quintile 5 HbA1C >9.0% (n = 1,109)p Value
Age, yrs70.5 ± 9.370.5 ± 9.069.6 ± 8.968.8 ± 9.166.2 ± 9.9<0.001
Men93.494.192.894.692.60.25
Race<0.001
 White76.075.477.775.971.8
 Black12.09.410.711.316.6
 Other/unknown12.015.311.612.911.6
BMI, kg/m231.3 ± 6.931.7 ± 6.631.8 ± 6.431.7 ± 6.632.1 ± 7.00.05
SBP, mm Hg131 ± 21.4131 ± 20.5132 ± 21.8131 ± 21.5132 ± 22.20.18
LVEF<0.001
 Normal or mildly reduced48.048.745.544.539.5
 Moderate or severely reduced33.333.437.940.145.5
 Unknown18.717.916.615.415.1
Diabetes with complications51.755.057.862.264.1<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease22.223.721.625.327.00.02
Atrial fibrillation29.328.329.027.928.90.94
Past myocardial infarction34.733.537.136.133.00.21
Prior HF hospitalization within 2 yrs17.714.716.818.722.3<0.001
COPD29.528.024.626.025.50.05
Cancer18.416.916.915.814.30.08
HbA1C5.9 ± 0.56.8 ± 0.27.5 ± 0.28.4 ± 0.310.5 ± 1.7<0.001
GFR, ml/min/m254.8 ± 22.755.2 ± 21.555.3 ± 21.655.5 ± 21.558.3 ± 23.3<0.001
Hemoglobin, mg/dl13.1 ± 1.913.3 ± 1.713.4 ± 1.713.4 ± 1.613.6 ± 1.7<0.001
Cholesterol, mg/dl166 ± 39.0168 ± 36.4169 ± 37.4172 ± 40.1180 ± 42.6<0.001
Medications
 Insulin33.641.248.257.964.4<0.001
 Sulfonylurea63.960.758.755.951.1<0.001
 Biguanide20.425.126.228.129.4<0.001
 TZD7.910.711.813.316.4<0.001
Other diabetic therapy1.01.61.51.32.60.03
Mean no. of diabetic drugs receiving1.31.41.51.61.6<0.001
ACE/ARB80.583.384.084.186.40.004
Beta-blocker60.459.559.961.162.30.67
Statin52.655.656.860.559.20.001

Data expressed as mean ± SD or %.

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; HbA1C = glycosylated hemoglobin; HF = heart failure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; SBP = systolic blood pressure; TZD = thiazolidinedione.