Table 1

Factors Regulating Osteoprotegerin

Cell TypeCytokine/HormoneOsteoprotegerin Expression
EndothelialIL-1α
IL-1β
TNF-α
Smooth muscle cellsEstrogen
IL-1β
TNF-α
PDGF
bFGF
TGF-β
BMP-2
OsteoblastsIL-1β
IL-11
IL-18
TGF-β
Vitamin D3
Estradiol
Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone–related protein
PGE2
Glucocorticoids
Bone marrow stromal cellsIL-18
TNF-α
BMP-4
TGF-β
IGF-1
IL-1β
IL-6
IL-11
IL-17

bFGF = basic fibroblast growth factor; BMP = bone morphogenic protein; IGF = insulin-like growth factor; IL = interleukin; PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; TGF = transforming growth factor; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.