Table 2

Change in Clinical Risk Factors, Medical Treatment, and Incurred Costs

ParametersStudy Group at BaselineNo-Scan GroupScan Groupp Value
CAD risk factors
 Baseline SBP, mm HgAll subjects130 (119, 142)131 (121, 144)0.03
 Change in SBP, mm HgAll subjects−5 (−16, 6)−7 (−18, 3)0.02
 Baseline DBP, mm HgAll subjects81 (75, 89)81 (76, 89)0.41
 Change in DBP, mm HgAll subjects−4 (−12, 4)−5 (−12, 3)0.50
 Baseline cholesterol, mg/dlAll subjects213 (187, 238)213 (187, 240)0.44
 Change in cholesterol, mg/dlAll subjects−16 (−44, 7)−21 (−49, 6)0.08
 Baseline LDL, mg/dlAll subjects130 (109, 155)133 (111, 158)0.15
 Change in LDL, mg/dlAll subjects−11 (−41, 10)−17 (−44, 7)0.04
 Baseline HDL, mg/dlAll subjects53 (42, 65)52 (42, 64)0.58
 Change in HDL, mg/dlAll subjects−1 (−7, 5)−1 (−6, 5)0.28
 Baseline triglycerides, mg/dlAll subjects113 (78, 166)112 (79, 161)0.99
 Change in triglycerides, mg/dlAll subjects−9 (−37, 14)−10 (−42, 14)0.40
 Baseline glucose, mg/dlAll subjects94 (86, 101)93 (86, 101)0.40
 Change in glucose, mg/dlAll subjects−2 (−8, 6)0 (−8, 7)0.16
 Baseline weight, lbsBMI ≥25 kg/m2186 (167, 210)188 (166, 209)0.66
 Change in weight, lbsBMI ≥25 kg/m21 (−5, 8)0 (−6, 7)0.07
 Baseline WC, inchesM >40, W >3541 (38, 43)41.3 (38, 43.5)0.19
 Change in WC, inchesM >40, W >351 (−2, 3)0 (−3, 2)0.01
 Quit smokingSmokers16/36 (44%)34/69 (49%)0.64
 Exercise ≥3 times/weekNonexercisers95/266 (36%)214/582 (37%)0.77
 Baseline FRSAll subjects6 (2, 12)6 (2, 12)0.45
 Change in FRSAll subjects0 (0, 2)0 (−1, 2)0.003
New meds
 Lipid medsNo lipid meds109/441 (25%)284/963 (29%)0.06
 BP medsNo BP meds77/419 (18%)214/877 (24%)0.02
 Diabetic medsNo diabetic meds15/595 (3%)40/1260 (3%)0.44
 AspirinNo aspirin39/525 (7%)92/1130 (8%)0.62
Meds adherence
 Lipid medsOn lipid meds145/168 (86%)281/325 (86%)0.96
 BP medsOn BP meds173/192 (90%)388/414 (94%)0.11
 Diabetic medsOn diabetic meds26/28 (93%)45/51 (88%)0.71
 AspirinOn aspirin26/84 (31%)43/158 (27%)0.54
Performed procedures
 Resting ECGAll subjects380 (61.0%)767 (58.5%)0.30
 Stress nuclearAll subjects62 (10.0%)169 (12.9%)0.06
 Stress echocardiographyAll subjects102 (16.4%)195 (14.9%)0.39
 Any stress testAll subjects211 (33.9%)454 (34.6%)0.74
 Cardiac CTAll subjects44 (7.1%)101 (7.7%)0.62
 Carotid ultrasoundAll subjects88 (14.1%)167 (12.7%)0.40
 Cardiac catheterizationAll subjects18 (2.9%)43 (3.3%)0.71
 Coronary revascularizationAll subjects11 (1.8%)30 (2.3%)0.46
Medical costs (in U.S. $)
 Procedure costsAll subjects712 (523, 901)904 (739, 1,056)0.56
 Medication costsAll subjects2,937 (2,620, 3,254)3,149 (2,924, 3,374)0.09
 Lipid-lowering medsAll subjects721 (625, 817)748 (682, 813)0.06
 BP medsAll subjects761 (659, 863)892 (819, 966)0.02
 Diabetic medsAll subjects545 (415, 675)533 (444, 623)0.87
 AspirinAll subjects26 (20, 33)27 (22, 31)0.92
 All costsAll subjects3,649 (3,263, 4,035)4,053 (3,739, 4,367)0.09

Values are median (25th, 75th percentile) or n (%).

BMI = body mass index; CT = computed tomography; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; FRS = Framingham Risk Score; M = men; meds = medications; SBP = systolic blood pressure; W = women; WC = waist circumference; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • Mean ± SD change in FRS was 0.7 ± 5.1 versus 0.002 ± 4.9 in the no-scan versus scan groups, respectively.

  • Stress nuclear, stress echocardiography, or treadmill exercise electrocardiography (ECG).

  • Includes a $150 charge for coronary artery calcium scanning.