Table 5

Risk of MI Associated With PH of MI and Comparisons Within Major Subgroups: Analysis of 14,467 Controls and 12,149 Cases

PH of MI Adjusted for Age, Sex, RegionPH of MI Adjusted for 9 Risk Factors
Overall1.81 (1.69–1.94)1.74 (1.58–1.92)
Sex
 Women1.62 (1.41–1.86)1.65 (1.36–2.00)
 Men1.88 (1.73–2.04)1.78 (1.59–1.98)
 p value for heterogeneity0.06940.5078
Age
 Younger (men ≤55 yrs, women ≤65 yrs)2.01 (1.84–2.20)1.84 (1.63–2.08)
 Older (men >55 yrs, women >65 yrs)1.54 (1.38–1.72)1.60 (1.38–1.86)
 p value for heterogeneity0.00020.1539
Highest level of education completed
 Trade/college/university1.73 (1.56–1.93)1.75 (1.51–2.02)
 9–12 yrs of education2.04 (1.79–2.33)1.97 (1.64–2.37)
 ≤8 yrs of education2.00 (1.76–2.28)1.69 (1.42–2.01)
 p value for heterogeneity0.0980.4415
Household income
 Low (lowest 2 quintiles of income)1.88 (1.64–2.15)1.76 (1.55–2.00)
 Middle (middle quintile)1.56 (1.26–1.93)1.78 (1.52–2.09)
 High (upper 2 quintiles)1.73 (1.47–2.06)1.76 (1.55–2.00)
 p value for heterogeneity0.33800.4430
Economic development of country
 Low income1.69 (1.40–2.04)1.60 (1.23–2.07)
 Middle income1.98 (1.80–2.19)1.88 (1.66–2.13)
 High income1.60 (1.41–1.81)1.53 (1.27–1.86)
 p value for heterogeneity0.01990.1699
Cardiovascular risk
 Low Framingham risk (1st tertile)2.06 (1.79–2.37)1.96 (1.66–2.30)
 Medium Framingham risk (2nd tertile)1.68 (1.47–1.92)1.57 (1.35–1.83)
 High Framingham risk (3rd tertile)1.82 (1.55–2.13)1.75 (1.46–2.10)
 p value for heterogeneity0.12100.1566

Values are odds ratio (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise indicated. PH of MI is self-reported history of MI in mother or father.

Abbreviations as in Table 3.

  • Economic development of each country was based on World Bank classifications for the relevant period 1999 to 2003 (http://web-worldbank.org).