Table 1

Heterogeneity of Myocardial Structural Remodeling in Different Cardiac Diseases at Heart Failure Stage

FibrosisCollagen ScaffoldCardiomyocyte Death
DiseaseInflammationReactiveReparativeDisruptionApoptosisNecrosisAutophagy
Hypertensive heart disease++++++
Ischemic heart disease+/+++++++++++++
Dilated cardiomyopathy+/++++++++++++
Myocarditis++++++(+)+++
Diabetic cardiomyopathy++++++++++
Aortic valve stenosis++++++++

Semiquantitative score of the severity of the lesions: + = low; ++ = moderate; +++ = high. Parentheses indicate that the information about the presence of reparative fibrosis in myocarditis is contradictory. Elaborated with information reviewed in Graham et al. (9), Dorn (10), and Jiang and Liao (11).