Table 1

HR (95% CI) for the Relation of Blood Pressure in Early and Mid-Adulthood With All-Cause and CVD Mortality (N = 18,881)—HAHS

nAll-CauseCVD
DeathsAge-AdjustedAge- and University Covariate-Adjusted*Age-, University Covariate-, and 62/66 Hypertension-Adjusted*DeathsAge-AdjustedAge- and University Covariate-Adjusted*Age-, University Covariate-, and 62/66 Hypertension-Adjusted*
University entry (18.4 yrs)
 Per SD (13.1 mm Hg) increase in systolic blood pressure18,8817,9721.05 (1.03–1.07)1.05 (1.03–1.08)1.03 (1.01–1.06)3,3431.09 (1.05–1.13)1.08 (1.04–1.12)1.04 (1.01–1.09)
 Categories of systolic blood pressure, mm Hg
  <1051,7627280.97 (0.89–1.05)0.99 (0.89–1.09)0.99 (0.89–1.09)2830.95 (0.82–1.09)0.98 (0.84–1.14)0.97 (0.83–1.14)
  105–1144,4361,7681.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)6981.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
  115–1246,4912,7161.03 (0.97–1.10)1.04 (0.97–1.12)1.03 (0.96–1.10)1,1531.11 (1.01–1.22)1.09 (0.98–1.21)1.06 (0.96–1.18)
  125–1343,7961,5821.01 (0.94–1.08)1.04 (0.96–1.12)1.02 (0.94–1.10)6751.09 (0.98–1.21)1.09 (0.97–1.23)1.05 (0.93–1.18)
  135–1441,7078221.17 (1.08–1.27)1.16 (1.05–1.27)1.11 (1.01–1.21)3701.33 (1.17–1.51)1.28 (1.11–1.47)1.18 (1.03–1.36)
  145–1544702421.23 (1.07–1.40)1.24 (1.07–1.43)1.16 (1.00–1.34)1121.43 (1.17–1.75)1.47 (1.18–1.81)1.29 (1.04–1.60)
  ≥1552191141.23 (1.02–1.49)1.32 (1.08–1.63)1.18 (0.96–1.45)521.41 (1.07–1.87)1.43 (1.04–1.95)1.15 (0.84–1.58)
 p Value for trend18,8817,972<0.001<0.0010.0063,343<0.001<0.0010.003
 Normal6,7482,5311.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)9921.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Pre-hypertensive9,5774,0131.04 (0.99–1.09)1.05 (0.99–1.11)1.03 (0.97–1.09)1,3841.12 (1.03–1.21)1.13 (1.04–1.24)1.09 (1.00–1.20)
 Stage 1 hypertension2,1761,1761.12 (1.05–1.20)1.14 (1.06–1.24)1.09 (1.01–1.18)5301.27 (1.14–1.41)1.28 (1.14–1.44)1.17 (1.04–1.31)
 Stage 2 hypertension3802521.26 (1.11–1.44)1.28 (1.11–1.48)1.19 (1.03–1.37)1221.53 (1.27–1.85)1.51 (1.23–1.86)1.31 (1.06–1.61)
 p Value for trend18,8817,972<0.001<0.001<0.0013,028<0.001<0.0010.001
Middle-age (44.4 yrs)
 Nonhypertensive17,0076,7451.00 (ref)2,7041.00 (ref)
 Hypertensive1,8741,2271.57 (1.48–1.67)6392.02 (1.85–2.20)

Values are n or hazard ratio (95% confidence interval). Model 1: adjusted by age at college entry; Model 2: adjusted by age, BMI, cigarette smoking status, and physical activity at college entry; Model 3: Adjusted by age, BMI, cigarette smoking status, and physical activity at college entry, and hypertension in 1962/1966;

BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HAHS = Harvard Alumni Health Study; HR = hazard ratio; ref = reference.

  • * n = 15,488 due to missing BMI, physical activity, and smoking status data;

  • Current Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria categories: normotensive (<120/<80 mm Hg), pre-hypertension (120–139/80–89 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (140–159/90–99 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (≥160/≥100 mm Hg).

  • The remainder of the CVD deaths (n = 846; 25%) were chiefly myocardial degeneration with atherosclerosis (International Classification of Diseases Seventh Revision [ICD 7] code 422.1; n = 203), other and unspecified diseases of heart (ICD 7 code 434; n = 167), and aortic aneurysm (ICD 7 code 451; n = 105).