Table 1

Strategies for Quantifying the Estimated Stochastic Risks of Low-Dose Radiation Associated With Contemporary Cardiovascular Imaging and Therapeutic Procedures

StrategyPrimary ResponsibilityStakeholdersImplementation Time Frame
Basic and translational research in radiation biology
  • Research scientists

  • Physicists

  • Funding agencies

  • Professional and scientific organizations

  • Industry

Ongoing; funding for additional research by 2014
  • Evaluate biological markers of cellular radiation injury as predictors of radiation-induced cancer

  • Determine the dose-response relationship between radiation and molecular and cellular effects

  • Better techniques for modeling and simulation to estimate radiation dose

Epidemiological research on population effects of radiation
  • Research scientists

  • Physicists

  • Funding agencies

  • Industry

  • Professional and scientific organizations

  • Hospitals and testing/procedural labs

  • Payers

Ongoing; registry by 2014
  • Long-term studies of patients at high risk (e.g., children, high exposures due to occupation or accidents)

  • Large prospective registries focused on defining stochastic risks of radiation exposure

  • Develop models of risk related to chronic or serial exposure to low-dose medical radiation