Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Overall CHARM Population According to Group Defined by Ts of Baseline Heart Rate

Heart Rate Group at Baseline (beats/min)p Value for Trend
T1T2T3
n = 2,553n = 2,689n = 2,355
(33.6%)(35.4%)(31.0%)
60 (57–64)72 (70–75)85 (80–91)
Patient characteristics
 Age67 (59–74)67 (58–74)65 (57–73)<0.001
  ≥75 yrs609 (23.9)625 (23.2)503 (21.4)0.04
 Female692 (27.1)905 (33.7)802 (34.1)<0.001
 LVEF (%)38 (30–50)37 (28–50)35 (25–47)<0.001
 NYHA functional class
  II1,260 (49.4)1,202 (44.7)953 (40.5)
  III/IV1,293 (50.7)1,487 (55.3)1,402 (59.5)<0.001
 AF on ECG283 (11.1)398 (14.8)467 (19.8)<0.001
 Blood pressure (mm Hg)
  Systolic130 (118–142)130 (120–142)130 (118–144)0.22
  Diastolic75 (70–80)80 (70–84)80 (70–85)<0.001
Medical history
 Current smoking305 (11.9)378 (14.1)431 (18.3)0.008
 Diabetes mellitus601 (23.5)789 (29.3)772 (32.8)<0.001
 Hypertension1,365 (53.5)1,529 (56.9)1,290 (54.8)0.33
 Hospital admission for HF1,691 (66.2)1,945 (72.3)1,789 (76.0)<0.001
 Myocardial infarction1,510 (59.2)1,433 (53.3)1,059 (45.0)<0.001
 Stroke238 (9.3)238 (8.9)187 (7.9)0.09
 History of AF673 (26.4)746 (27.7)664 (28.2)0.15
Medical treatment
 ACE inhibitors1,054 (41.3)1,098 (40.8)973 (41.3)0.99
 Beta-blockers1,769 (69.3)1,445 (53.7)988 (42.0)<0.001
 Diuretic agents2,031 (79.6)2,202 (81.9)2,051 (87.1)<0.001
 Spironolactone369 (14.5)432 (16.1)470 (20.0)<0.001
 Digoxin/digitalis glycosides962 (37.7)1,156 (43.0)1,136 (48.2)<0.001

Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; AF = atrial fibrillation; ECG = electrocardiogram; HF = heart failure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA = New York Heart Association functional class; T = tertile.

  • Median heart rate (interquartile range).