Table 2

Comparison of Baseline, and Pre- and Post-Yoga Intervention Secondary Efficacy Outcome Measures

Type of Score (n = 49)Baseline (Day 0)Pre-Yoga (Day 90)Post-Yoga (Day 180)p Value
SDS (Depression)31.0 (27.0–37.0)29.0 (24.0–35.0)27.0 (22.0–31.0)<0.001
SAS (Anxiety)34.0 (31.5–37.0)33.0 (31.0–36.5)25.0 (23.0–30.0)<0.001
SF-36 (domain-wise)
 1. Physical functioning85.0 (80.0–95.0)85.0 (70.0–93.8)90.0 (85.0–95.0)0.017
 2. Role physical100.0 (75.0–100.0)100.0 (56.3–100.0)100.0 (86.3–100.0)0.304
 3. Bodily pain100.0 (67.0–100.0)100.0 (100.0–100.0)100.0 (100.0–100.0)0.494
 4. General health65.0 (50.0–77.5)60.0 (45.0–75.0)75.0 (65.0–82.5)<0.001
 5. Vitality84.0 (68.0–88.0)84.0 (73.0–91.0)91.0 (80.0–95.8)<0.001
 6. Social functioning100.0 (75.0–100.0)100.0 (75.0–100.0)100.0 (90.0–100.0)0.019
 7. Role emotional68.0 (60.5–80.0)68.0 (58.5–80.0)78.0 (60.5–80.0)0.212
 8. Mental health75.0 (65.0–85.0)75.0 (65.0–80.0)80.0 (70.0–86.0)<0.001
Hemodynamic parameters
 Heart rate66.9 ± 8.364.7 ± 7.561.5 ± 7.6<0.001
 Systolic BP135.0 ± 7.5133.0 ± 6.2127.7 ± 6.7<0.001
 Diastolic BP80.9 ± 7.778.2 ± 6.574.0 ± 6.7<0.001

Values are median (interquartile range) for survey assessments and mean ± SD for hemodynamic parameters.

BP = blood pressure; SAS = Zung self-assessment anxiety score; SDS = Zung self-assessment depression score; SF-36 = Short Form 36.

  • Statistically significant with a p value <0.05 (Friedman test).

  • Statistically significant with a p value <0.05 (repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni adjustment).