Table 2

Progression of Aortic and/or Paravalvular Regurgitation Over Time

First Author, Year (Ref. #)nSignificant Post-ProceduralSignificant at 6 MonthsSignificant at 1 YearSignificant at 2 YearsSignificant at 3 Years
Paravalvular leakage
 Webb, 2009 (24)168
  • 30 days

  • 2+ = 37%

  • 3+ = 5%

“Stable”
 Muñoz-Garcia, 2011 (79)144
  • 72 h

  • Mild = 40%

  • Moderate = 23%

  • Mild = 47%

  • Moderate = 19%

 Ussia, 2012 (16)181
  • Post-procedure

  • Mild = 53%

  • Moderate = 15%

  • Mild = 48%

  • Moderate = 18%

  • Mild = 50%

  • Moderate = 17%

  • Mild = 47%

  • Moderate = 10%

 Ye, 2010 (80)71
  • 30 days

  • Mild = 26%

  • Moderate = 5%

“Remained unchanged and clinically insignificant during follow-up”
 Takagi, 2011 (15)79
  • 30 days

  • 1+ = 51%

  • 2+ = 20%

  • 3+ = 3%

  • 1+ = 49%

  • 2+ = 27%

  • 3+ = 0%

 Ewe, 2011 (81)107
  • Post-procedure

  • 1+ = 58%

  • 2+ = 16%

  • 3+ = 5%

  • ≥6 months

  • 1+ = 51%

  • 2+ = 31%

  • 3+ = 0%

 Godino, 2010 (82)137
  • Post-procedure

  • 1+ = ≈60%

  • 2+ = ≈12%

  • 3+ = 4%

  • 4+ = 2%

  • 1+ = ≈65%

  • 2+ = ≈9%

  • 3+ = ≈5%

  • 4+ = 0%

Aortic regurgitation
 Bauer, 2010 (83)88
  • 2+ = 29%

  • 3+ = 7%

  • 2+ = 24%

  • 3+ = 0%

  • 2+ = 23%

  • 3+ = 0%

 Rajani, 2010 (84)46
  • Within 5 days

  • Mild = 33%

  • Moderate = 19%

  • Moderate/severe = 5%

  • Mild = 31%

  • Moderate = 8%

  • Moderate/severe = 15%

 Clavel, 2009 (85)50
  • Discharge

  • Trivial = 38%

  • Mild = 42%

  • Moderate = 8%

  • Severe = 0%

  • 6–12 months

  • Trivial = 26%

  • Mild = 46%

  • Moderate = 6%

  • Severe = 0%

 Lefevre, 2011 (86)130
  • Discharge

  • 2+ = 42%

  • 3+ = 5%

  • 2+ = 25%

  • 3+ = 0%

 Buellesfeld, 2011 (20)126
  • 30 days

  • 1+ = 32%

  • 2+ = 9%

  • 3+ = 0%

  • 1+ = 39%

  • 2+ = 6%

  • 3+ = 0%

  • 1+ = 34%

  • 2+ = 3%

  • 3+ = 0%

  • 1+ = 37%

  • 2+ = 0%

  • 3+ = 0%

 Bleiziffer, 2012 (87)227
  • Discharge

  • Mild = 31%

  • Mild/moderate = 13%

  • Moderate = 8%

  • Moderate/severe = 3%

  • Mild = 45%

  • Mild/moderate = 11%

  • Moderate = 6%

  • Moderate/severe = 0%

  • Severe = 0%

  • Mild = 40%

  • Mild/moderate = 16%

  • Moderate = 6%

  • Moderate/severe = 0.5%

  • Severe = 0.5%

  • Mild = 41%

  • Mild/moderate = 15%

  • Moderate = 5%

  • Moderate/severe = 1%

  • Severe = 1%

 Koos, 2011 (29)57
  • After implant

  • 1+ = 77%

  • 2+ = 9%

  • 3+ = 5%

  • Mean 83 ± 80 days

  • 1+ = 82%

  • 2+ = 5%

  • 3+ = 0%

 D'Onofrio, 2011 (88)504
  • Discharge

  • 1+ = 30%

  • 2+ = 9%

  • Mean 9.2 ± 6.5 months

  • “No changes in the degree of AR were found”

 Gurvitch, 2010 (21)70
  • Post-procedure

  • Trivial = 40%

  • Mild = 44%

  • Moderate = 6%

  • Trivial = 60%

  • Mild = 33%

  • Moderate = 3%

 Walther, 2011 (22)168
  • 3–6 months

  • 1+ = 51%

  • 2+ = 1%

  • 3+ = 0%

  • 1+ = 46%

  • 2+ = 5%

  • 3+ = 0%