Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of the Study Patients

All Patients (n = 146)MCE Findingsp Value*
Reflow (n = 97)No-Reflow (n = 49)
Age (yrs)60 ± 1158 ± 1164 ± 110.003
Gender (male/female)116/3076/2140/90.64
Height (cm)163 ± 8163 ± 7163 ± 80.82
Weight (kg)64.6 ± 11.964.4 ± 12.465.3 ± 10.80.72
Peak creatine kinase (IU/l)2,160 ± 1,4991,719 ± 1,1773,032 ± 1,688< 0.0001
Blood glucose (mg/dl)176 ± 69159 ± 56209 ± 79< 0.0001
HbA1c(%)5.7 ± 1.35.6 ± 1.35.9 ± 1.30.12
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)199 ± 45201 ± 44194 ± 470.38
Triglycerides (mg/dl)113 ± 91119 ± 99100 ± 720.26
Risk factors (%)
Diabetes mellitus28.123.736.70.10
Hypertension50.051.546.90.28
Hyperlipidemia40.445.330.60.08
Smoking66.472.255.10.06
Symptom onset to reflow time (h)6.9 ± 5.77.2 ± 6.26.3 ± 4.40.41
Incidence of pre-infarction angina (%)43.247.420.40.14
Killip class (I/II/III)132/12/295/2/037/10/20.03
Hemodynamic data on admission
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)138 ± 27136 ± 29141 ± 230.34
Heart rate (beats/min)80 ± 1877 ± 1785 ± 200.01
Rate–pressure product11,155 ± 3,90310,684 ± 3,63512,148 ± 4,2900.04
Hemodynamic data after PCI
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)124 ± 24126 ± 25121 ± 210.32
Heart rate (beats/min)83 ± 1283 ± 1285 ± 130.24
Rate–pressure product10,483 ± 3,05210,383 ± 2,71810,695 ± 3,6840.57
ST-segment re-elevation (%)38.434.046.90.13
Stent implantation (%)49.346.455.10.32
Anterior wall MI (%)63.753.683.70.0002
TIMI flow grade 0 on initial CAG (%)76.770.189.80.005
Good collateral channels(%)29.528.132.70.57
WMS on admission14.9 ± 5.613.8 ± 5.417.0 ± 5.40.0009
ΔWMS4.7 ± 4.75.6 ± 4.62.8 ± 4.40.0006
Medication after AMI
ACE inhibitor (%)91.192.887.80.59
Beta-blocker (%)28.825.834.70.26

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; AMI = acute myocardial infarction; CAG = coronary angiogram; HbA1c= glycosylated hemoglobin; MCE = myocardial contrast echocardiography; MI = myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; TIMI = Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trial; WMS = wall motion score on echocardiogram.

  • * P values for the differences between reflow and no reflow by MCE.

  • Good collateral channels indicate collateral flow graded as 2 or 3. Data are presented as the mean value ± SD or number or percentage of patients.