Table 1

Baseline Clinical Characteristics by Gender

CharacteristicsWomen (n = 593)Men (n = 2,115)p Value
Age (yrs) mean (range)58 ± 13.3 (19–93)61 ± 12.0 (21–90)< 0.001
Ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic367 (62%)1,529 (72%)0.001
 Black, non-Hispanic180 (30%)447 (21%)
 Other46 (8%)139 (7%)
NYHA functional class
 III549 (93%)1,933 (91%)0.356
 IV44 (7%)182 (9%)
Etiology
 Ischemic228 (38%)1,359 (64%)< 0.001
 Nonischemic365 (62%)756 (36%)
Diabetes mellitus214 (36%)750 (35%)0.778
Hypertension340 (57%)1,256 (59%)0.370
Physical exam
 HR (beats/min)84 ± 12.881 ± 13.3< 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2)28 ± 6.828 ± 5.80.318
 SBP (mm Hg)117 ± 18.1117 ± 18.00.883
Baseline medications
 ACE inhibitor536 (90%)1,934 (91%)0.423
 Digitalis550 (93%)1,951 (92%)0.684
 Anticoagulant246 (41%)969 (46%)0.061
 Aspirin214 (36%)1,001 (47%)< 0.001
Afib29 (5%)274 (13%)< 0.001
LBBB202 (34%)478 (23%)< 0.001
LVEF (%)25 ± 7.123 ± 7.3< 0.001
RVEF (%)38 ± 13.834 ± 13.3< 0.001
CTR59 ± 7.655 ± 6.8< 0.001
BUN/creatinine21 ± 9.319 ± 7.8< 0.001
Sodium (mEq/l)139 ± 3.2139 ± 3.40.862
PNE (pg/ml) median3984420.007
Current smoker68 (11%)406 (19%)< 0.001
History of smoking314 (53%)1,638 (77%)0.001

Mean ± 1 SD.

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; Afib = atrial fibrillation; BMI = body mass index; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CTR = cardiothoracic ratio; HR = heart rate; LBBB = left bundle branch block; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PNE = plasma norepinephrine; RVEF = right ventricular ejection fraction; SBP = systolic blood pressure.