Table 1

Ablative Approach and Results of Cryothermal Balloon Ablation of Pulmonary Veins

Dog No.VeinNo. Cryoenergy ApplicationTotal Duration Application (min)Minimum Ablation Temperature (°C)Angiography Leak Pre-AblationICE Leak Pre-AblationImmediate SuccessOne-Week SuccessHistopathologic Evidence of Complete PV Lesion
Group I
 1RSPV28−82NoneNoYesNANA
LSPV28−54ModYesNoNANA
 2RSPV28−83NoneNoYesNANA
LSPV14−81MildNoYesNANA
Group II (one-week survival dogs)
 3RSPV14−82NoneNoYesYesYes
LSPV216−72ModYesYesNoNo
 4RSPV28−81NoneNoYesYesYes
LSPV18−82MildNoYesYesYes
 5RSPV216−82NoneNoYesYesYes
LSPV18−80MildNoYesYesYes
 6RSPV14−81NoneNoYesYesYes
LSPV28−63ModYesNoNoNo
 7RSPV28−81NoneNoYesYesYes
LSPV18−83NoneNoYesYesYes
 8RSPV28−81MildNoYesYesYes
LSPV18−80MildNoYesYesYes
Mean ± SD1.5 ± 0.58.2 ± 3.4−78 ± 814/1610/1210/12

ICE = intracardiac echocardiography; LSPV = left superior pulmonary vein; NA = not available; RSPV = right superior pulmonary vein.

  • Angiographic peri-balloon flow leaks were classified as none: during contrast injection absence of any peri-balloon flow leak, with persistence of the contrast agent inside the PV for minutes; mild leak: presence of a temporary mild peri-balloon flow leak related to the increased pressure inside the vein during contrast injection, with persistence of the contrast agent inside the PV for minutes; moderate leak: during contrast injection presence of a peri-balloon flow leak, with quickly expelling of the contrast agent, but still allowing visualization of the venous structure; severe leak: during contrast injection presence of a peri-balloon flow leak, with quickly expelling of the contrast agent resulting in poor visualization of the venous structure.

  • Persistence of PV entrance block 30 min after the last cryoapplication.

  • Persistence of PV entrance block at one-week after ablation.