Table 2

Evaluation of the Cause of Heart Failure—The History

  • History to include inquiry re:

  •  Hypertension

  •  Diabetes

  •  Dyslipidemia

  •  Valvular heart disease

  •  Coronary or peripheral vascular disease

  •  Myopathy

  •  Rheumatic fever

  •  Mediastinal irradiation

  •  History or symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing

  •  Exposure to cardiotoxic agents

  •  Current and past alcohol consumption

  •  Smoking

  •  Collagen vascular disease

  •  Exposure to sexually transmitted diseases

  •  Thyroid disorder

  •  Pheochromocytoma

  •  Obesity

  • Family history to include inquiry re:

  •  Predisposition to atherosclerotic disease (history of MIs, strokes, PAD)

  •  Sudden cardiac death

  •  Myopathy

  •  Conduction system disease (need for pacemaker)

  •  Tachyarrhythmia

  •  Cardiomyopathy (unexplained HF)

  •  Skeletal myopathy

HF indicates heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; and PAD, peripheral arterial disease.