Table 9

Differential Diagnosis in a Patient With Heart Failure and Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

Incorrect diagnosis of HF
Inaccurate measurement of LVEF
Primary valvular disease
Restrictive (infiltrative) cardiomyopathies
 Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis
Pericardial constriction
Episodic or reversible LV systolic dysfunction
Severe hypertension, myocardial ischemia
HF associated with high metabolic demand (high output states)
 Anemia, thyrotoxicosis, arteriovenous fistulae
Chronic pulmonary disease with right HF
Pulmonary hypertension associated with pulmonary vascular disorders
Atrial myxoma
Diastolic dysfunction of uncertain origin

HF indicates heart failure; LV, left ventricular; and LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.