Table 4

Comparison of Exercise-Restricted Versus Unrestricted Patients After BAVP for Congenital AS (n = 403)*

FactorExercise Restricted (n = 183)Unrestricted (n = 220)p Value
Age at BAVP (yrs)4 (0–29)3 (0–35)0.09
Associated CHD58 (32%)73 (33%)0.83
Pre-intervention peak AS gradient (mm Hg) (n = 181,219)65 (10–160)65 (6–130)0.59
Acute post-dilation peak AS gradient (mm Hg) (n = 181,218)30 (0–90)28 (0–106)0.36
Acute post-dilation AR severity0.47
 None-trace87 (48%)118 (54%)
 Mild65 (35%)68 (31%)
 Moderate or severe31 (17%)34 (15%)
Cumulative follow-up (patient-yrs)2,5412,691
Follow-up (yrs)14.4 (0.2–24.8)12.1 (0.0–24.4)0.01
Repeat BAVP43 (24%)52 (24%)
AVR60 (33%)45 (20%)
Most recent echocardiographic AS gradient (MIG, mm Hg)44 (0–120)41 (0–115)0.60
 Mild (<40)66 (41%)86 (45%)0.73
 Moderate (40–70)78 (48%)89 (46%)
 Severe (>70)17 (11%)17 (9%)
Most recent echocardiographic AR ≥ moderate49 (27%)56 (26%)0.82
Transplantation1 (1%)1 (<1%)
Death (any)11 (6%)6 (3%)
SUD1 (<1%)0 (0%)

Data are expressed as median (range) or as number (percent). The p values are not reported for time-dependent variables.

CHD = congenital heart disease; MIG = maximal instantaneous gradient by Doppler; SUD = sudden unexpected death; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 to 3.

  • * Includes patients ≥4 years of age at most recent follow-up, with no histories of pulmonary hypertension. Exercise restriction data were unavailable in 19 patients.

  • Censored at the time of AVR or transplantation.

  • Data were available in all but 50 patients: 22 restricted and 28 unrestricted.