Table 4

Baseline and Procedural Characteristics of the Study Population According to the Presence of None, Single, or Multiple New Cerebral Ischemic Lesions Following TAVI

VariablesNo Lesions (n = 19)Single Lesions (n = 10)Multiple Lesions (n = 31)p Value
Baseline characteristics
 Age (yrs)82 ± 684 ± 782 ± 80.86
 Male sex6 (32)6 (60)18 (58)0.17
 Diabetes4 (21)2 (20)9 (29)0.78
 Dyslipidemia13 (68)8 (80)23 (74)0.86
 Hypertension13 (68)7 (70)25 (81)0.66
 Current smokers001 (3)0.87
 Chronic atrial fibrillation/flutter4 (21)1 (10)9 (29)0.55
 Coronary artery disease11 (58)8 (80)25 (81)0.21
 Prior stroke2 (11)2 (20)5 (16)0.80
 Peripheral vascular disease5 (26)7 (70)7 (23)0.03
 Carotid stenosis >50%3 (16)2 (20)1 (3)0.13
 COPD5 (26)3 (30)6 (19)0.71
 eGFR <60 ml/min18 (95)8 (80)27 (87)0.42
 STS-PROM score (%)6.9 ± 2.99.7 ± 7.77.5 ± 4.10.28
 Logistic EuroSCORE17.6 ± 9.518.6 ± 10.919.8 ± 15.20.84
Echocardiographic variables
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)39 ± 1149 ± 1444 ± 210.31
 Aortic valve area (cm2)0.65 ± 0.120.56 ± 0.210.65 ± 0.190.31
 LVEF (%)56 ± 1654 ± 1555 ± 110.89
 LVEF <40%2 (11)2 (20)6 (19)0.72
 Aortic annulus diameter (TEE, mm)21 ± 221 ± 222 ± 20.45
 Aortic plaques ≥4 mm7 (37)4 (40)6 (19)0.28
Computed tomography
 Aortic valve leaflet calcium volume (mm3)1,830 (1,460–3,430)3,030 (1,060–4,320)2,320 (1,450–2,830)0.90
Procedural variables
 Valve diameter (mm)
  2310 (53)5 (50)13 (42)0.77
  269 (47)4 (40)17 (55)
 Ratio aortic annulus/valve diameter0.87 ± 0.040.77 ± 0.290.85 ± 0.170.30
 Rapid pacing runs5 ± 26 ± 35 ± 20.54
 Procedure duration96 (65–180)82 (70–100)82 (70–150)0.25
 Successful procedure19 (100)9 (90)31 (100)0.17
 Procedural complications
  Valve embolization000
  Valve malposition001 (3)1.00
  Need for a second valve002 (6)0.67
  Severe hypotension needing hemodynamic support1 (5)1 (10)00.23
  Major access site complications3 (16)02 (6)0.45
  Life-threatening arrhythmias002 (6)0.67

Values are expressed as mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range) for skewed variables.

Abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.