Table 1

Clinical and Procedural Characteristics of the Study Population

VariablesAll Patients (n = 60)Transfemoral (n = 29)Transapical (n = 31)p Value
Clinical characteristics
 Age (yrs)83 ± 784 ± 781 ± 70.17
 Male sex30 (50)16 (55)14 (45)0.61
 Diabetes15 (25)9 (31)6 (19)0.38
 Dyslipidemia44 (73)17 (59)27 (87)0.02
 Hypertension45 (75)19 (66)26 (84)0.14
 Current smokers1 (2)01 (3)1.00
 Chronic atrial fibrillation/flutter14 (23)7 (24)7 (23)1.00
 Coronary artery disease44 (73)17 (59)27 (87)0.02
 Prior stroke9 (15)4 (14)5 (16)1.00
 Peripheral vascular disease19 (32)5 (17)14 (45)0.03
 Carotid stenosis >50%6 (10)2 (7)4 (13)0.67
 COPD14 (23)6 (21)8 (26)0.77
 eGFR <60 ml/min53 (88)25 (86)28 (90)0.70
 STS-PROM score (%)7.7 ± 4.68.1 ± 5.57.3 ± 3.60.55
 Logistic EuroSCORE18.9 ± 12.817.6 ± 11.320.1 ± 14.10.46
Echocardiographic variables
 Mean aortic gradient (mm Hg)43 ± 1742 ± 1544 ± 190.76
 Aortic valve area (cm2)0.63 ± 0.180.67 ± 0.180.61 ± 0.170.22
 LVEF (%)55 ± 1352 ± 1657 ± 110.15
 LVEF <40%10 (17)7 (24)3 (10)0.17
 Aortic annulus diameter (TEE, mm)22 ± 223 ± 221 ± 2<0.0001
 Aortic plaques ≥4 mm (TEE)17 (28)8 (28)9 (29)0.57
Computed tomography
 Aortic valve leaflet calcium volume (mm3)2,020 (1,350–4,140)2,870 (1,890–5,300)1,650 (1,300–2,570)0.04
Procedural variables
 Valve diameter (mm)
  2328 (47)10 (34)18 (58)0.12
  2630 (50)17 (59)13 (42)
 Catheter size (F)
  2210 (17)10 (34)
  2417 (28)17 (59)
  2631 (52)31 (100)
 Ratio aortic annulus/valve diameter0.84 ± 0.170.84 ± 0.250.85 ± 0.040.91
 Rapid pacing runs5 ± 24 ± 26 ± 2<0.0001
 Procedure duration (min)83 (70–140)120 (96–180)72 (65–81)0.07
 Successful procedure59 (98)28 (97)31 (100)0.48
 Procedural complications
  Valve embolization000
  Valve malposition1 (2)01 (3)1.00
  Need for second valve2 (3)02 (6)0.49
  Severe hypotension needing hemodynamic support2 (3)02 (6)0.49
  Major access site complications5 (8)3 (10)2 (6)1.00
  Life-threatening arrhythmias2 (3)1 (3)1 (3)1.00

Values are expressed as mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range) for skewed variables.

COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; STS-PROM = Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk Of Mortality; TEE = transesophageal echocardiography.