Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of ABS Patients With and Without Acute HF

All Patients (n = 118)No Acute HF (n = 65)Acute HF (n = 53)p Value
Age, yrs70 ± 1367 ± 1273 ± 120.02
Females115 (97%)63 (97%)52 (98%)0.70
Symptom onset to presentation, days1.3 ± 0.81.3 ± 1.01.2 ± 0.50.30
Presenting symptom
 Chest pain74 (63%)51 (78%)23 (43%)<0.0001
 Dyspnea61 (52%)26 (40%)35 (66%)0.005
Precipitating factor0.0003
 Emotional stress30 (25%)19 (30%)11 (21%)
 Physical stress60 (51%)23 (35%)37 (70%)
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension73 (62%)40 (62%)33 (62%)0.90
 Diabetes mellitus15 (13%)7 (11%)8 (15%)0.50
Electrocardiogram
 ST-segment elevation54 (46%)23 (36%)31 (58%)0.01
 Deep T-wave inversion65 (55%)39 (60%)26 (49%)0.20
Cardiac biomarkers
 Admission troponin T, ng/ml0.52 ± 0.670.37 ± 0.420.71 ± 0.850.009
 Peak troponin T, ng/ml0.71 ± 0.750.55 ± 0.560.93 ± 0.900.01
 BNP, pg/ml1,011 ± 927783 ± 7531,161 ± 1,0100.10
Angiographic characteristics
 Ejection fraction, %41 ± 1346 ± 1135 ± 130.0001
 LV end-diastolic pressure, mm Hg25 ± 723 ± 728 ± 70.001
 Grade 3 or 4 mitral regurgitation13 (14%)5 (10%)8 (21%)0.08
Admission echocardiogram
 Ejection fraction, %40 ± 1344 ± 1336 ± 130.004
 Right ventricular systolic pressure, mm Hg45 ± 1341 ± 1149 ± 140.006
 Wall motion score index1.89 ± 0.471.74 ± 0.412.05 ± 0.470.0006

Data are expressed as n (%) or mean ± SD.

ABS = apical ballooning syndrome; HF = heart failure; LV = left ventricular.