Table 1

Trials of Antihypertensive Treatment in the Elderly

Trial Name (Reference)NAge Range (y)Mean Age (y)Drug(s)% Risk Reduction
CVAMIHospitalization for CHFTotal CVD (or All CV Events)All-Cause MortalityCV MortalityResponse to Therapy Same Above Mean Age
ACCOMPLISH (8)11,506≥5568(Benazepril amlodipine) versus (benazepril + HCTZ)16NR↑ 417*1020*Yes
ALLHAT (9)33,357≥5567Amlodipine versus chlorthalidone7No difference↑ 38*↑ 44NRYes
Lisinopril versus chlorthalidone↑ 15*↑ 5↑ 19*↑ 10*No differenceNRYes
ANBP 2 (10)6,08365–8472ACE inhibitors versus diuretics↑ 2141511*10NRYes
Coope and Warrender (11)88460–7968Atenolol + bendrofluazide42*−33224322Stroke only
EWPHE (12)840≥6072HCTZ + triamterence + methyldopa36202229927*NR
HYVET (4)3,84580–10584Indapamide + perindopril30NR64*34*21*23Yes
INVEST (13)22,576≥5066Verapamil versus atenololNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceNo differenceYes§
LIFE (14)9,19355–8067Losartan versus atenolol25*NR313*1011NR
MRC (15)4,39665–7470Atenolol + HCTZ or amiloride25*19NR17*39Yes
SHEP (16)4,736≥6072Chlorthalidone36*2555321320NR
STONE (17)1,63260–7967Nifedipine57*66860*4526Yes
STOP-HTN (18)1,62770–8476Atenolol + HCTZ or amiloride or metroprolol or pinodolol471351404350Yes
Syst-China (19)2,394≥6067Nitrendipine captopril HCTZ38*333837*39*39*All but CV mortality
Syst-Eur (20)4,695≥6070Nitrendipine422636311427NR
VALUE (21)15,245≥5067Amlodipine versus valsartan↑ 15NR11↑ 6↑ 4NRNR

ACE indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACCOMPLISH, Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension; ALLHAT, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial; ANBP2, Second Australian National Blood Pressure study; CHF, congestive heart failure; CV, cardiovascular; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EWPHE, European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly; HCTZ, hydrochlorothiazide; HYVET, Hypertension in the Very Elderly; INVEST, International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study; LIFE, Losartan Intervention For Endpoint; MI, myocardial infarction; MRC, Medical Research Council; N, number of randomized patients; NR, not reported; SHEP, Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program; STONE, Shanghai Trial of Nifedipine in the Elderly; STOP-HTN, Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension; Syst-China, Systolic Hypertension in China; Syst-Eur, Systolic Hypertension in Europe; VALUE, Valsartan Long-term Use Evaluation; and ↑, increase.

  • * Statistically significant;

  • ≥65 years of age, HR=0.81, >70 years of age, HR=0.79;

  • Specific data not reported;

  • § ≤70 years of age, RR=1.06, ≥70 years of age, RR=0.93.