Table 1

Basal Characteristics in Relation to BNP Levels

Derivation SetValidation Set
CharacteristicBNP <130 pg/ml (n = 118)BNP ≥130 pg/ml (n = 42)p ValueBNP <130 pg/ml (n = 100)BNP ≥130 pg/ml (n = 34)p Value
Age (yrs)51 ± 956 ± 100.0752 ± 957 ± 80.08
Male (%)65 (55)24 (57)0.1154 (54)18 (52)0.94
AF (%)5 (4)3 (7)0.044 (4)2 (6)0.045
Hypertension (%)64 (54)17 (40)0.1955 (55)14 (42)0.16
SBP (mm Hg)139 ± 37136 ± 210.58136 ± 21135 ± 250.91
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)61 ± 1256 ± 140.4859 ± 1055 ± 120.56
Heart rate (beats/min)76 ± 1069 ± 110.2178 ± 1072 ± 120.37
Exercise capacity (METs)9.5 (8.5–15)8.5 (8.0–12.5)0.3710 (8.0–14)8.5 (7.5–13.5)0.15
Heart-rate product (×1,000) at peak exercise test22.4 (18.7–25.8)21.8 (17.9–24.7)0.6121.9 (17.8–25.7)20.8 (17.4–24.9)0.49
SBP (mm Hg) at peak exercise174 (135–198)171 (138–194)0.77176 (137–209)172 (139–205)0.64
Heart rate (beats/min) at peak exercise121 (97–144)119 (94–141)0.81123 (96–147)120 (94–142)0.87
EF (%)64 (57–71)61 (56–65)0.03565 (58–70)62 (57–65)0.04
EDV (ml/m2)97 (56–107)125 (69–143)0.0395 (55–105)119 (61–136)0.025
ESV (ml/m2)27 (17–34)35 (24–40)0.0225 (18–32)34 (22–39)0.02
Fractional shortening (%)38 (33–44)35 (31–39)0.0639 (34–46)35 (32–37)0.056
EDD/BSA (mm/m2)30 (27–36)42 (28–47)0.00132 (28–37)40 (31–45)0.01
ESD/BSA (mm/m2)16 (12–21)26 (18–30)0.00115 (13–22)24 (20–27)0.001
R/T2.35 (1.7–2.6)2.52 (1.91–3.11)0.022.38 (1.65–2.55)2.49 (1.87–3.07)0.03
WS (kdyne/cm2)64.4 (37.4–73.1)73.2 (42.7–83.6)0.0263.1 (38.4–71.2)71.4 (40–81.3)0.03
RV (ml/beat)74 (63–90)87 (69–107)0.0176 (62–91)91 (69–105)0.01
RF (%)59 (53–77)69 (59–84)0.0161 (53–76)70 (56–88)0.01
EROA (mm2)44 (35–69)57 (41–84)0.000145 (34–66)62 (48–91)0.001
AV/BSA (cm3/m2)57 (37–68)65 (48–75)0.0254 (34–62)63 (39–79)0.04
PASP (mm Hg)25 (18–31)33 (22–40)0.03523 (15–29)34 (21–42)0.025
Medical treatment during the study (%)
 ACE-I68 (57)21 (50)0.2150 (50)16 (47)0.69
 ARB27 (23)11 (26)0.4723 (23)7 (20)0.52
 CCB19 (16)7 (17)0.9316 (16)6 (18)0.71
 AA5 (4.2)2 (4.7)0.774 (4)1 (3)0.74
 BB6 (5)2 (4.7)0.874 (3)1 (3)1.00
 Digoxin3 (2.5)1 (2.4)0.822 (2)1 (3)0.56

Values are mean ± SD, absolute numbers (%), or median (Interquartile range).

AA = aldosterone antagonists; ACE-I = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; AF = atrial fibrillation; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; AV/BSA = atrial volume/body surface area; BB = beta-blockers; BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide; CCB = calcium-channel blockers; EDD/BSA = end-diastolic diameter/body surface area; EDV = end-diastolic volume; EF = ejection fraction; EROA = effective regurgitant orifice area; ESD/BSA = end-systolic diameter/body surface area; METs = metabolic equivalents; PASP = pulmonary artery systolic pressure; RF = regurgitant fraction; R/T = end-diastolic radius/thickness ratio; RV = regurgitant volume; SBP = systolic blood pressure; WS = end-systolic circumferential wall stress.