Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of Patients Who Developed CIN or NRD

Risk FactorCIN (n = 1,470)No CIN (n = 43,959)p ValueNRD (n = 142)No NRD (n = 54,384)p Value
Demographic
 Age (60–69 yrs)25.628.60.0133.128.70.25
 Age (70–79 yrs)29.122.8<0.000128.923.20.11
 Age (80+ yrs)25.012.0<0.000116.911.90.07
 Female45.333.7<0.000140.934.00.09
 Current smoking21.827.7<0.000123.227.40.26
 Lean (BMI <25 kg/m2)20.018.50.1319.018.20.79
 Overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2)32.235.50.00928.935.30.11
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)48.046.10.1652.146.60.18
Historical
 Hypertension89.183.4<0.000184.583.80.05
 Prior MI39.834.4<0.000144.434.90.005
 Diabetes55.234.9<0.000163.435.2<0.0001
 Congestive heart failure38.315.2<0.000145.115.2<0.0001
 Extracardiac vascular disease43.625.7<0.000145.125.8<0.0001
 Significant valve disease10.73.8<0.000114.83.7<0.0001
 Gastrointestinal bleeding4.41.6<0.00014.91.50.0009
 Atrial fibrillation22.810.1<0.000125.410.0<0.0001
 Cardiac arrest1.41.30.650.71.30.54
 Prior PCI40.144.30.00134.545.50.009
 Prior CABG21.219.40.0923.219.60.27
 COPD31.519.2<0.000130.319.50.001
Laboratory
 Baseline creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl33.39.7<0.000162.09.6<0.0001
 Anemia55.727.2<0.000165.526.7<0.0001
 Ejection fraction <50%61.731.0<0.000173.230.3<0.0001
Procedural
 Emergency PCI36.715.4<0.000152.114.0<0.0001
 MI (prior 7 days)62.632.3<0.000173.930.1<0.0001
 Acute MI (<24 h)38.319.5<0.000151.417.9<0.0001
 Recent cardiac arrest6.31.3<0.000111.37.3<0.0001
 Cardiogenic shock14.11.3<0.000128.21.5<0.0001
 Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation5.91.2<0.000110.61.2<0.0001
 Exceeding MACD15.04.5<0.000121.14.5<0.0001
 Left main stenosis >70%7.63.6<0.000111.33.6<0.0001
 Restenotic lesion9.710.30.408.510.30.48
 Visible thrombus24.612.4<0.000135.211.5<0.0001
 Calcification16.612.2<0.000112.712.70.98
 Chronic total occlusion1.62.10.693.52.10.25

Values are %. Baseline characteristics of patients who developed contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) or nephropathy requiring dialysis (NRD). Patients with a prior history of renal disease requiring dialysis are excluded.

BMI = body mass index; CABG = coronary artery bypass graft surgery; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MACD = maximal acceptable contrast dose; MI = myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention.