Table 10

Potential Approaches for Imaging in TAVR

Preprocedural Assessment
  •  1 Assessment of aortic annular size and shape (CT, CMR, 2D and 3D echocardiography)

  •  2 Assessment of aortic valve for number of cusps, degree of calcification and valve area by planimetry (CT, CMR, 2D and 3D echocardiography)

  •  3 Measurement of the distance between annulus and coronary ostia (CT, CMR, 2D and 3D echocardiography)

  •  4 Planning for precise coaxial alignment of the stent-valve along the centerline of the aortic valve and aortic root (CT)

  •  5 Assessment of aortic dimensions (2D and 3D echocardiography, CT or CMR) and atherosclerosis (echocardiography, CT, or CMR)

  •  6 Assessment of dimensions and atherosclerosis of iliofemoral vessels (CT, MR, angiography)

Postprocedural Assessment
  •  1 Assessment of degree of aortic regurgitation (echocardiography or CMR)

  •  2 Assessment of cerebral embolization (cerebral MRI)

2D indicates 2-dimensional; 3D, 3-dimensional; CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; and TAVR, transcatheter aortic valve replacement.