Table 3

Hemostatic Factors Conferring the Prothrombotic State in Atrial Fibrillation

First Author (Ref. #)Study DesignSubjectsFactorsResults
Mondillo et al. (Online Ref. 57)Case-control45 NVAF (chronic AF), 35 controlsFibrinogen, AT III, PC, PF4, β-thromboglobulin, D-dimer, TPA, PAI, vWF, soluble thrombomodulinThere is a correlation among endothelial dysfunction, coagulation factors, and left atrial dimension
Li-Saw-Hee et al. (Online Ref. 58)Case-control20 (chronic AF), 20 vascular disease, 20 controlsvWF, sP-sel, fibrinogenPatients with chronic AF have increased vWF and fibrinogen compared with patients in SR
Matsubara et al. (Online Ref. 59)Case-control7 NVAF, 4 controlsTFTF expression induced by local inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in AF
Marín et al. (43)Case-control90 AF (persistent), 74 controlsFactor XIII Val34Leu, TF, sP-sel, fibrinogenFactor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism was independently associated with IL-6 levels in AF
Barber et al. (44)Observational cohort258 AFFibrinogen, D-dimer, F1+2, TAT, vWF, TPAThrombin generation and fibrin turnover were increased in AF
Heeringa et al. (45)Longitudinal population-based162 AF, 324 SRVWF, sP-sel, fibrinogensP-sel predicted clinical adverse outcomes in AF
Choudhury et al. (46)Case-control121 AF (paroxysmal, permanent), 65 healthy controls, 78 diseased controls in SRCD62P, CD63, sP-sel, lysate P-selectinPlatelet activation in AF may be due to underlying cardiovascular disease, rather than due to AF
Ohara et al. (41)Case-control591 NVAF (permanent, paroxysmal), 129 controlsPF4, β-thromboglobulin, F1+2, D-dimerCoagulation and fibrinolytic activity is increased along with accumulation of the risk factors of TE in NVAF
Conen et al. (26)Prospective cohort24,734 women without AF (747 had AF during median follow-up 14.4 yrs)CRP, sICAM-1, fibrinogenInflammation, as jointly measured by plasma levels of hsCRP, sICAM-1, and fibrinogen, is significantly associated with risk of incident AF
Hayash et al. (39)Case-control14 AF (paroxysmal), 14 chronic AF, 13 controlsCD41a, CD42b, P-selectin, PSGL-1, microparticles in PRPPatients with chronic AF showed platelet-MNC interaction ex vivo and TF over-expression on MNCs
Roldán et al. (42)Prospective cohort829 AF (permanent) with OACvWF, D-dimervWF is associated with thrombotic events and bleeding in AF

AT III = antithrombin III; F1+2 = prothrombin fragment 1+2; MNC = mononuclear cell; NVAF = nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; OAC = oral anticoagulant; PAI = plasminogen activator inhibitor; PC = protein C; PF = platelet factor; PRP = platelet-rich plasma; PSGL = P-selectin glycoprotein ligand; sICAM = soluble intercellular adhesion molecule; sP-sel = soluble P-selectin; SR = sinus rhythm; TAT = thrombin-antithrombin complexes; TF = tissue factor; TPA = tissue plasminogen activator; vWF = von Willebrand factor; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.