Table 1

Secretion, Biological Effect, and Prognostic Role of Main Inflammatory Markers Related to Atrial Fibrillation

Inflammatory MarkersSecretionBiological EffectPrognostic Role in Atrial FibrillationRef. #
IL-2T lymphocytes1. Activate T lymphocytes
2. Stimulates synthesis of TNF-a and IFN-γ
1. Predictor of early post-operative AF
2. Low serum IL-2 levels on admission associated with successful CV
(13)
IL-6Macrophages, T lymphocytes, endothelial cells1. Stimulate synthesis of CRP, fibrinogen, TNF-α
2. Recruit leukocytes
1. Incidence of AF post-operation
2. Outcome of CV and RF catheter ablation
3. Predictor of stroke and the composite endpoint of stroke and death in AF
(16–19)
IL-8Monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cellsActivate and recruit neutrophils, lymphocytes?
MCP-1Monocytes, macrophagesActivate and recruit monocytes leukocytes, lymphocytesIncident AF(10)
CRPHepatocytes1. Promote MCP-1 mediated chemotaxis
2. Induce monocyte TF secretion
1. Incidence of AF, incidence of LAF or paroxysmal AF and recurrence after CV
2. Exclude presence of TEE markers: LA/LAA SEC or LA/LAA thrombus
(6,7,11)
TNF-αMonocytes, macrophagesActivate immune system in AF?Predictor of ischemic stroke(11)

AF = atrial fibrillation; CRP = C-reactive protein; CV = cardioversion; IFN = interferon; IL = interleukin; LA = left atrial; LAA = left atrial appendage; MCP = monocyte-chemoattractant protein; RF = radiofrequency; SEC = spontaneous echocardiographic contrast; TEE = transesophageal echocardiography; TF = tissue factor; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.