Table 1

Elevation of Cardiac Troponin Values Because of Myocardial Injury

Injury related to primary myocardial ischemia
 Plaque rupture
 Intraluminal coronary artery thrombus formation
Injury related to supply/demand imbalance of myocardial ischemia
 Tachy-/brady-arrhythmias
 Aortic dissection or severe aortic valve disease
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
 Cardiogenic, hypovolemic, or septic shock
 Severe respiratory failure
 Severe anemia
 Hypertension with or without LVH
 Coronary spasm
 Coronary embolism or vasculitis
 Coronary endothelial dysfunction without significant CAD
Injury not related to myocardial ischemia
 Cardiac contusion, surgery, ablation, pacing, or defibrillator shocks
 Rhabdomyolysis with cardiac involvement
 Myocarditis
 Cardiotoxic agents, e.g. anthracyclines, herceptin
Multifactorial or indeterminate myocardial injury
 Heart failure
 Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy
 Severe pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension
 Sepsis and critically ill patients
 Renal failure
 Severe acute neurological diseases, e.g. stroke, subarachnoid
 hemorrhage
 Infiltrative diseases, e.g. amyloidosis, sarcoidosis
 Strenuous exercise