Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Entire Cohort and Stratified by Quartiles of Epicardial Fat

Overall (N = 4,093)1st Quartile (n = 1,023)2nd Quartile (n = 1,022)3rd Quartile (n = 1,024)4th Quartile (n = 1,024)p Value
Age, yrs59.4 ± 7.856.8 ± 7.559.0 ± 7.460.0 ± 7.861.7 ± 7.5<0.001
Men1,928 (47.1)218 (21.3)391 (38.3)559 (54.6)760 (74.2)<0.001
Waist circumference, cm93.7 ± 13.1382.8 ± 10.090.1 ± 9.896.8 ± 9.6105.2 ± 11.4<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg132.9 ± 20.7125.3 ± 20.2130.6 ± 19.7136.2 ± 20.2139.5 ± 20.0<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg81.5 ± 10.878.0 ± 10.380.8 ± 10.082.8 ± 10.884.4 ± 11.0<0.001
Antihypertensive medication1,309 (32.0)193 (18.9)281 (27.5)345 (33.7)490 (47.9)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dl231.1 ± 38.8226.1 ± 37.0233.4 ± 38.7232.9 ± 38.7232.0 ± 40.20.002
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl146.8 ± 36.1138.2 ± 35.4149.2 ± 36.7149.9 ± 34.8150.0 ± 36.3<0.001
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl59.0 ± 17.266.9 ± 17.960.9 ± 16.156.4 ± 16.051.7 ± 15.0<0.001
Lipid-lowering medication use366 (8.9)64 (6.3)86 (8.4)111 (10.8)105 (10.3)<0.001
Diabetes508 (12.4)40 (3.9)77 (7.5)167 (16.3)224 (21.9)<0.001
Smoking
 Current947 (23.1)225 (22.0)214 (21.0)251 (24.5)257 (25.1)0.03
 Former1,357 (33.2)269 (26.3)313 (30.6)355 (34.7)420 (41.0)<0.001
 Never1,789 (43.7)529 (51.7)495 (48.4)418 (40.8)347 (33.9)<0.001
CAC score12.6 (0.0–116.0)1.0 (0–37.9)4.1 (0–62.4)21.9 (1.0–129.7)58.8 (7.7–246.3)<0.001
Epicardial fat volume, cm385.9 (61.4–120.9)47.6 (38.9–54.6)73.1 (67.4–79.6)101.2 (94.0–110.6)150.5 (133.7–178.3)
Fatal or nonfatal coronary event130 (3.2)9 (0.9)22 (2.2)51 (5.0)48 (4.7)<0.001

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).

CAC = coronary artery calcification; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein.