Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Patient Population

CharacteristicsValues
Total patients, n452
Men/women, n/n (%,%)313/139 (69/31)
Mean age ± SD, yrs55.4 ± 14.2
Mean ejection fraction ± SD, %25.8 ± 11.8
Etiology of heart failure
 Ischemic cardiomyopathy, n (%)222 (49)
 Dilated cardiomyopathy, n (%)118 (26)
 Other, n (%)112 (25)
Medications on admission
 ACEI or ARBs, n (%)331 (73)
 Digoxin, n (%)301 (67)
 Diuretics, n (%)362 (80)
 Beta-blockers, n (%)116 (26)

ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB = angiotensin receptor blockers.