Table 1

Patient Baseline Characteristics for CTO Success and Failure Groups

All Patients (n = 376)CTO Success (n = 289)CTO Failure (n = 87)
Age (yrs, mean ± SD)58.3 ± 10.258.0 ± 9.959.4 ± 10.9
Male323 (85.9%)249 (86.2%)74 (85.1%)
Family history of CAD158 (42.0%)126 (43.6%)32 (36.8%)
Diabetes67 (17.8%)50 (17.3%)17 (19.5%)
Insulin treatment7 (1.86%)4 (1.38%)3 (3.45%)
Hypertension200 (53.2%)153 (52.9%)47 (54.0%)
Hyperlipidemia218 (58.0%)169 (58.5%)48 (56.3%)
Smoking
 Active134 (35.6%)107 (37.0%)27 (30.3%)
 Previous115 (30.6%)83 (28.7%)32 (36.8%)
Prior MI258 (68.6%)198 (68.5%)60 (69.0%)
Prior CABG19 (5.0%)13 (4.5%)6 (6.9%)
Prior PCI48 (12.8%)32 (11.1%)16 (18.4%)
Angina
 Stable264 (70.2%)203 (70.2%)61 (70.1%)
 Unstable66 (17.5%)52 (18.0%)14 (4.8%)
 Silent ischemia41 (10.9%)29 (10.0%)12 (13.8%)
NYHA class 3 to 415 (4.0%)9 (3.1%)7 (8.0%)
Multivessel disease181 (48.1%)129 (44.6%)52 (59.8%)*
Ejection fraction (%, mean ± SD)55.9 ± 9.755.7 ± 9.656.3 ± 10.1

CABG = coronary artery bypass graft surgery; CAD = coronary artery disease; CTO = chronic total occlusion of coronary artery; CTO success = technical success on all CTOs targeted in a patient; LV = left ventricle; MI = myocardial infarction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention.

  • * p = 0.014.