Table 2

Relationship of QRS Duration and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients

StudyYearNo. of PatientsEtiologyMean Follow-Up (months)QRS Limit (s)Patients With Wide QRS (%)Mean LVEF (%)Significantly Increased All-Cause MortalitySignificantly Increased Sudden DeathSignificantly Increased Cardiac Death
Freudenberger et al. (11)2004100Isch 42%35≥0.123419 ± 7YesNSNS
Baldasseroni et al. (13)20035,517Isch 46%12>0.1238NSYesNSNS
Bode-Schnurbus et al. (14)2003165NS24≥0.151633 ± 14NoNSYes
Kearney et al. (17)2003184Isch 86%60>0.152924 ± 1§YesNoYes
Iuliano et al. (4)2002669Median = 45≥0.124324 ± 8YesYesNS
Isch 71%YesYesNS
Nonisch 29%NoNoNS
Kalra et al. (8)2002155NS28 ± 25≥0.124723 ± 9YesNSNS
Shamim et al. (22)2002112Isch 62%12Mean = 0.13NS38YesNSNS
Nonisch 38%
Shenkman et al. (7)20023,471NS32 ± 30≥0.1221NSNoNSNS
Farwell et al. (19)2000721Isch 61%12≥0.122537 ± 14NoNSNS
Shamim et al. (9)1999241NS31 ± 18≥0.123828YesNSNS
Huang et al. (31)199564NS18 ± 12>0.1220NSYesNSNS
Silverman et al. (32)199520019 ± 14≥0.123322 ± 8NoNSNS
Isch44%≥0.1224 ± 8NoNSNS
Nonisch56%≥0.1221 ± 8YesNSNS

Several articles included in the table did not provide standard deviations of data.

 Isch = ischemic; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; Nonisch = nonischemic; NS = not stated; Year = year of publication.

  • Compared with patients with a narrow QRS complex;

  • only patients with QRS >120 ms;

  • mean LVEF of all patients regardless of QRS duration; some studies provided LVEF of subgroups but not from the entire group;

  • § only patients with QRS ≥150 ms.