Table 1

Variables Tested for Their Predictive Potential for In-Hospital Mortality

Demographic characteristics
Baseline clinical characteristics
 BNP concentration
 BUN concentration
 Congestion on first chest X-ray
 Creatinine concentration
 Duration of symptoms before hospitalization
 Elevated cardiac enzymes (troponin I positive or ≥1 ng/ml; troponin T positive or ≥0.1 ng/ml; CK-MB >5% of total CK)
 Heart rate
 Hemoglobin concentration
 LVEF (<40% or moderately/severely impaired ejection fraction at presentation or prehospitalization
 NYHA functional classification at presentation or pre-hospitalization
 Presence of dyspnea at rest
 Presence of fatigue
 Presence of peripheral edema
 Presence of rales
 QRS duration >120 ms
 Sodium concentration
Coexisting conditions
 History of atrial fibrillation
 History of COPD/asthma
 History of chronic renal insufficiency
 History of CAD
 History of diabetes
 History of hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia
 History of hypertension
 History of ischemic heart disease
 History of heart failure
 History of myocardial infarction
 History of revascularization
 History of PVD
 History of stroke
 History of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation
 Insurance type (Medicare/Medicaid vs. other)

BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAD = coronary artery disease; CK-MB = creatinine kinase-MB fraction; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PVD = peripheral vascular disease; SBP = systolic blood pressure.