Table 9

ESs for DASH Variations/Glycemic Index/Load Dietary Approaches

BP
ES8.
  • In adults with BP of 120–159/80–95 mm Hg, modifying the DASH dietary pattern by replacing 10% of calories from carbohydrates with the same amount of either protein or unsaturated fat (8% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated) lowered systolic BP by 1 mm Hg compared with the DASH dietary pattern. Among adults with BP 140–159/90–95 mm Hg, these replacements lowered systolic BP by 3 mm Hg relative to DASH.

  • Strength of Evidence: Moderate

Lipids
ES9.
  • In adults with average baseline LDL-C level of 130 mg/dL, HDL-C level of 50 mg/dL, and triglyceride level of 100 mg/dL, modifying the DASH dietary pattern by replacing 10% of calories from carbohydrates with 10% of calories from protein lowered LDL-C by 3 mg/dL, HDL-C by 1 mg/dL, and triglycerides by 16 mg/dL compared with the DASH dietary pattern. Replacing 10% of calories from carbohydrates with 10% of calories from unsaturated fat (8% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated) lowered LDL-C similarly, increased HDL-C by 1 mg/dL, and lowered triglycerides by 10 mg/dL as compared with the DASH dietary pattern.

  • Strength of Evidence: Moderate

ES10.
  • There is insufficient evidence to determine whether low-glycemic diets versus high-glycemic diets affect lipids or BP for adults without diabetes. The evidence for this relationship in adults with diabetes was not reviewed.

  • Strength of Evidence: Insufficient

BP indicates blood pressure; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; ES, evidence statement; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.