Table 2

Recent Studies Investigating the Use of Nonfasting TG and RC Levels as Predictors of CVD Events

Study/First Author (Ref. #)Primary Endpoint, Sample SizePrimary Endpoint, Hazard Ratio (95% CI)Subgroup, Sample SizeSubgroup
Primary Endpoint, Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Fasting/Nonfasting Definition
(Limitations)
The Women's Health Study (64)Incident CVD, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death (n = 26,509)Fasting
2.23 (1.82–2.74)
Nonfasting
2.53 (1.69–3.79)
HDL-C ≥50 mg/dlFasting
1.32 (1.03–1.68)
Nonfasting
1.94 (1.21–3.10)
Fasting: ≥8 h since last meal
Nonfasting: <8 h since last meal
(Only 1 measurement collected from each subject—either a fasting or nonfasting measurement, as determined by self-reporting of time from last meal)
Nordestgaard et al. (65)Incident MI, CVD, and death with 1 mmol/l increase in nonfasting TG (n = 13,981)CVD outcome:
Women
1.30 (1.22–1.40)
Men
1.14 (1.10–1.19)
Adjusted for baseline HDL-CWomen
1.25 (1.14–1.37)
Men
1.12 (1.07–1.18)
Fasting: No fasting samples collected
Nonfasting: 1–8 h from last reported meal
(Nonfasting group consisted of post-prandial measures from subjects within the CCHS and CGPS, and therefore across different time periods and by different methods [self-report and FTT])
Varbo et al. (72)Incidence of CVD with 1 mmol/l increase in nonfasting RC (n = 73,513)1.4 (1.3–1.5)Adjusted by ratio of nonfasting RC to HDL-C1.23 (1.19–1.27)Fasting: No fasting samples collected
(Nonfasting RC calculated indirectly by subtracting HDL-C and LDL-C from TC)
Jørgensen et al. (73)Incidence of MI with genetically elevated doubling of nonfasting TG and RC (n = 10,391)1.87 (1.25–2.81)Adjustment by nonfasting measureTG
1.57 (1.32–2.68)
RC
1.67 (1.38–2.02)
(Nonfasting group consisted of post-prandial measures from subjects within the CCHS, CGPS, and CIHDS, and therefore with methodological variability in collecting nonfasting TG levels [adjusted for in the Jørgensen et al. (73) study])

1 mmol/l = 88.41 mg/dl.

CCHS = Copenhagen City Heart Study; CGPS = Copenhagen General Population Study; CI = confidence interval; CIHDS = Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study; CVD = cardiovascular disease events; FTT = fat tolerance test; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI = myocardial infarction; RC = remnant cholesterol; TC = total cholesterol; TG = triglycerides.