Table 2

Risk Factor, Echocardiographic, and AF Severity Changes

Control Group
(n = 88)
p ValueRFM Group
(n = 61)
p Valuep Value
BaselineFollow-UpBaselineFollow-Up
Risk factors
 Weight, kg96.6 ± 16.895.8 ± 17.60.13100.7 ± 17.687.5 ± 14.9<0.0010.002
 BMI, kg/m232.1 ± 4.731.8 ± 4.90.1233.5 ± 4.629.1 ± 3.9<0.001<0.0011
 Mean SBP, mm Hg158.7 ± 21.3138.2 ± 18.0<0.001160.8 ± 20.3126.8 ± 12.8<0.0010.006
 DM with HbA1c ≥7%, n175900.001
 No. with AHI >3054463216<0.001
Medication use
 No. of antiarrhythmic agents1.0 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.7<0.0011.1 ± 0.30.3 ± 0.6<0.001<0.001
 No. of antihypertensive agents1.6 ± 1.21.9 ± 1.30.21.5 ± 1.11.2 ± 0.90.04<0.001
Echocardiographic measures
 LA volume index, ml/m242.4 ± 10.439.5 ± 12.10.0742.5 ± 1230.4 ± 8.3<0.0010.001
 LV septum, mm11.0 ± 2.010.9 ± 0.190.04712.0 ± 2.09.6 ± 0.17<0.001<0.001
 LVIDd, cm5.1 ± 0.75.1 ± 0.60.2045.3 ± 0.54.9 ± 0.6<0.0010.047
 LVEF, %60 ± 10.161.1 ± 80.53861.3 ± 1062.6 ± 5.50.5240.971
Atrial Fibrillation Severity Score
 AF frequency (1–10)6.6 ± 1.13.2 ± 1.1<0.0016.8 ± 1.22.0 ± 0.9<0.001<0.001
 AF duration (1.25–10)6.7 ± 1.33.3 ± 1.3<0.0016.4 ± 1.62.1 ± 0.9<0.0010.001
 AF episode severity (1–10)6.9 ± 1.35.2 ± 1.9<0.0016.6 ± 1.53.3 ± 1.5<0.001<0.001
 AF symptom subscale (0–35)23.1 ± 3.713.3 ± 6.2<0.00122 ± 5.27.1 ± 4.6<0.001<0.001
 Global well-being (1–10)2.5 ± 0.95.7 ± 2.0<0.0012.4 ± 0.97.6 ± 1.7<0.001<0.001

Values are mean ± SD or n.

DM = diabetes mellitus; HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; SBP = systolic blood pressure; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • The p value is for within-group differences (baseline to follow-up).

  • The p value is for between-group differences over time (group–time interaction).

  • Median follow-up: 42.8 months for the RFM group and 42.4 months for the control group.